Duchy of Merania

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The family of Duke Berthold, from the Hedwig Codex.

The Duchy of Merania (German: Herzogtum Meranien, Slovene: Vojvodina Meranija) was a fiefdom of the Holy Roman Empire from 1152 until 1248. The dukes of Merania were recognised as princes of the Empire enjoying imperial immediacy at a time when these concepts were just coming into use to distinguish the highest ranks of imperial nobility.[1] The exact territorial extent of Merania is unknown. It lay along the Adriatic, probably included the Istrian coast of the Kvarner Gulf and the town of Fiume (Rijeka).[2][3][4] The author of the Historia de Expeditione Friderici Imperatoris, an account of Barbarossa's crusade of 1190, writing around 1200, refers to "the Duke of Dalmatia, also called Croatia or Merania", specifying (imprecisely) that the duchy neighboured Zahumlje and Raška.[5]

It was created by the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa for Count Conrad II of Dachau in 1152 by separating some lordships from the marches of Carniola and Istria. This was part of a more general policy of elevating noblemen of comital rank to that of duke as a counterweight to the powerful dukes of the so-called stem duchies. It was also part of a reorganisation of the southeastern frontier that included the creation of the Duchy of Austria in 1156.[6] The new ducal titles created in the twelfth century were often based on insignificant or diminished territories. Merania was small, with little in the way of rights or income for its holder.[7] The ducal title that technically pertained only to the newly acquired territory was thus also often used in conjunction with the dynastic seat. Conrad was therefore sometimes known as the Duke of Dachau.[8] Bishop Otto I of Freising, in his history of Barbarossa's reign, calls Conrad the Duke of Croatia and Dalmatia.[9]

In 1180, Merania fell vacant and Frederick Barbarossa granted it to passed to Berthold, the son of the count of Andechs. This was probably done in order to maintain a balance of power and rank between the House of Andechs and the House of Wittelsbach, which had received the Duchy of Bavaria earlier that year.[10] Berthold inherited the March of Istria in 1188, but on his death in 1204 Merania went to his eldest son, Otto I, and Istria to a younger son, Henry.[7] In the 1240s, the duke of Mernia, who had numerous possessions throughout southern Germany, were involved in a dispute with the duke of Bavaria that turned into open warfare.[11] In 1248, it fell vacant again with the extinction of the Andechs-Meranier and was broken up, mostly going to Istria.[1][11]

List of dukes[edit]

  • Conrad I (1152–1159), also Conrad II of Dachau
  • Conrad II (1159–1180), also Conrad III of Dachau
  • Berthold (1180–1204), also Berthold IV of Andechs
  • Otto I (1204–1234), also Otto VII of Andechs
  • Otto II (1234–1248), also Otto VIII of Andechs

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wilson 2016, pp. 360–61.
  2. ^ Štular 2009, p. 23.
  3. ^ Arnold 1991, p. 98.
  4. ^ Lyon 2013, p. xv, has a map showing its probable location.
  5. ^ Loud 2010, p. 62.
  6. ^ Wilson 2016, p. 358.
  7. ^ a b Lyon 2013, p. 161.
  8. ^ Arnold 1991, p. 99.
  9. ^ Otto & Rahewin 1966, I.xxvi (p. 60) and IV.xvii (p. 252).
  10. ^ Lyon 2013, p. 115.
  11. ^ a b Arnold 1991, p. 109.

Sources[edit]

  • Aigner, Toni (2001). "Das Herzogtum Meranien: Geschichte, Bedeutung, Lokalisierung". In Andreja Eržen; Toni Aigner. Die Andechs-Meranier: Beiträge zur Geschichte Europas im Hochmittelalter. Kamnik: Kulturverein Kamnik. pp. 39–54. 
  • Arnold, Benjamin (1991). Princes and Territories in Medieval Germany. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
  • Herrmann, Erwin (1975). "Die Grafen von Andechs und der Ducatus Meraniae". Archiv für die Geschichte von Oberfranken. 55: 1–35. 
  • Loud, G. A., ed. (2010). The Crusade of Frederick Barbarossa: The History of the Expedition of the Emperor Frederick and Related Texts. Ashgate. 
  • Lyon, Jonathan (2004). Cooperation, Compromise and Conflict Avoidance: Family Relationships in the House of Andechs, ca. 1100–1204 (PhD diss.). University of Notre Dame. 
  • Lyon, Jonathan (2013). Princely Brothers and Sisters: The Sibling Bond in German Politics, 1100–1250. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press. 
  • Otto of Freising; Rahewin (1966). Charles Christopher Mierow, ed. The Deeds of Frederick Barbarossa. New York: W. W. Norton. 
  • Štular, Benjamin (2009). Mali Grad: High Medieval Castle in Kamnik. Ljubljana: Inštitut za arheologijo. 
  • Wilson, Peter (2016). Heart of Europe: A History of the Holy Roman Empire. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press. 

Further reading[edit]