Duck circovirus

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Duck circovirus
Virus classification e
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Monodnaviria
Kingdom: Shotokuvirae
Phylum: Cressdnaviricota
Class: Arfiviricetes
Order: Cirlivirales
Family: Circoviridae
Genus: Circovirus
Species:
Duck circovirus

The Duck circovirus (DuCV) is a type of virus found in ducks. Strains of the virus have predominantly been found in China,[1] though strains have also been isolated from ducks in Germany[2] and the United States.[3]

Duck circovirus is a small nonenveloped virus with a monomeric single-stranded circular DNA genome.[2][4] DuCV has been clustered in the Circoviridae family genus Circovirus, according to the eighth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses.[4]

Pathogenicity[edit]

Scientists have studied the Duck circovirus by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods and dot blot hybridisation (DBH) tests. Infection with DuCV appears to cause growth disorders in ducks as well as eventual immunosuppression due to depletion of lymphatic cells.[5]

Transmission[edit]

It was found that ducks between the ages of 40∼60 days were more susceptible to Duck circovirus. There was no evidence showing that the DuCV virus was capable of vertical transmission.[6]

Clinical signs[edit]

The clinical signs are immunosuppression, stunting in growth, and also feather abnormalities.

Research[edit]

The PCR and dot blot hybridization (DBH) test was used in 2006–2007. 742 ducks from 70 duck farms were tested. The overall infection rate was 33.29%. Ducks at 3–4 weeks of age where more susceptible to DuCV virus.[5]

Type of Ducks Affected[edit]

Anas platyrhynchos, Cairina moschata, and the American Pekin Duck are the ducks most affected by the DuCV virus. These ducks come from various regions of the world.[5]

Prevention[edit]

A vaccine to provide protection against Duck circovirus has not been approved for use, though research to create one has occurred. Experimental DNA vaccines encoding the DuCV capsid protein were found to provide protection in vivo,[7] as well as inactivated vaccines that were tested on Muscovy ducks.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Xie, Liji; Xie, Zhixun; Zhao, Guangyuan; Liu, Jiabo; Pang, Yaoshan; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Zhiqin; Fan, Qing (2012). "Complete Genome Sequence Analysis of a Duck Circovirus from Guangxi Pockmark Ducks". Journal of Virology. 86 (23): 13136. doi:10.1128/JVI.02494-12. PMC 3497624. PMID 23118461.
  2. ^ a b Hattermann, K.; Schmitt, C.; Soike, D.; Mankertz, A. (2003). "Cloning and sequencing of Duck circovirus (DuCV)". Archives of Virology. 148 (12): 2471–80. doi:10.1007/s00705-003-0181-y. PMID 14648300.
  3. ^ Banda, Alejandro; Galloway-Haskins, Rakijah I.; Sandhu, Tirath S.; Schat, Karel A. (2007). "Genetic Analysis of a Duck Circovirus Detected in Commercial Pekin Ducks in New York". Avian Diseases. 51 (1): 90–5. doi:10.1637/0005-2086(2007)051[0090:GAOADC]2.0.CO;2. PMID 17461272.
  4. ^ a b Zhang, Zhilong; Jia, Renyong; Wang, Mingshu; Lu, Yanyan; Zhu, Dekang; Chen, Shun; Yin, Zhongqiong; Wang, Yin; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun (2013). "Complete Genome Sequence of the Novel Duck Circovirus Strain GH01 from Southwestern China". Genome Announcements. 1 (1): e00166–12. doi:10.1128/genomeA.00166-12. PMC 3569302. PMID 23405313.
  5. ^ a b c Zhang, Xingxiao; Jiang, Shijin; Wu, Jiaqiang; Zhao, Qin; Sun, Yani; Kong, Yibo; Li, Xiaoxia; Yao, Meiling; Chai, Tongjie (2009). "An investigation of duck circovirus and co-infection in Cherry Valley ducks in Shandong Province, China". Veterinary Microbiology. 133 (3): 252–6. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2008.07.005. PMID 18760549.
  6. ^ Wan, Chun-he; Fu, Guang-hua; Shi, Shao-hua; Cheng, Long-fei; Chen, Hong-mei; Peng, Chun-xiang; Lin, Su; Huang, Yu (2011). "Epidemiological investigation and genome analysis of duck circovirus in Southern China". Virologica Sinica. 26 (5): 289–96. doi:10.1007/s12250-011-3192-y. PMID 21979568.
  7. ^ Huang J, Yang C, Jia R, Wang M, Chen S, Liu M, Zhu D, Zhao X, Yang Q, Wu Y, Zhang L, Yin Z, Jing B, Cheng A (November 2018). "Induction of a protective response in ducks vaccinated with a DNA vaccine encoding engineered duck circovirus Capsid protein". Vet Microbiol. 225: 40–47. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.09.002. PMID 30322531.
  8. ^ Zhaolong L, Guanghua F, Zhihua F, Jianhua C, Shaohua S, Rongchang L, Longfei C, Hongmei C, Chunhe W, Yu H (February 2020). "Evaluation of a novel inactivated vaccine against duck circovirus in muscovy ducks". Vet Microbiol. 241: 108574. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2019.108574. PMID 31928707.