Duhok

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Duhok

دهۆک
ܢܘܗܕܪܐ
دهوك
View on Duhok with the Duhok Dam in the background
View on Duhok with the Duhok Dam in the background
Duhok is located in Iraq
Duhok
Duhok
Duhok's location within northern Iraq (light gray)
Duhok is located in Iraq
Duhok
Duhok
Duhok (Iraq)
Coordinates: 36°52′N 43°0′E / 36.867°N 43.000°E / 36.867; 43.000Coordinates: 36°52′N 43°0′E / 36.867°N 43.000°E / 36.867; 43.000
Country Iraq
Autonomous region Kurdistan Region
GovernorateDuhok Governorate
DistrictDuhok District
Elevation
1,854 ft (565 m)
Population
 (2018)
 • Total340,900+[1]
Postcode
42001
Area code(s)062
Websitehttp://duhok.gov.krd

Duhok or Dohuk (Kurdish: دهۆک, Dihok‎; Syriac: ܢܘܗܕܪܐ‎, romanizedNūhadrā; Arabic: دهوك‎, Dahūk) is the capital of the Duhok Governorate in Kurdistan Region. The city is encircled by mountains along the Tigris river. Duhok has a growing tourist industry. Its population has increased rapidly since the 1990s, as the rural population moved to the cities after villages were destroyed by the Iraqi army. The University of Duhok, founded in 1992, is a renowned center for teaching and research. The city of Duhok is natively populated by Kurds and Assyrians and there are also some Arabs, Yazidis and Turkmen. Duhok is an expanding city that grows and develops every day.

Duhok has been a center for many refugees since 2014 as the Kurdistan Regional Government was the only governorate in Iraq to take in Iraqi and Syrian refugees. Duhok Governorate contains many mosques and historical shrines and tombs built during the Ayyubid period and historical sites from the Guti Medes, and still exist in the present, including the Great Duhok Mosque, the Azadi Mosque, the Saladin Salah Din Al - Ayoubi Mosque and the Great Mosque in Aqrah. It also has historical churches such as the Mar Odisho Church in the village of Dooreh (located in the Amadiya District), the Church of Mart Shmoni and the Church of Sultana Mahdokht (which was established in 325 AD) in the village of Araden.

Etymology[edit]

Duhok (Duhok of Dassini) means "Yazidi village". Another theory is that the name comes from Taok (meaning grapevine in Kurdish) because the region is very well known for vine trees. The Syriac name Bēṯ Nūhadrā translates to "house/land of the military leader". It refers to a small village nearby which is a district in the city due to the growth of the city during the last century. The name Nūhadrā continues to be used for the city and is also a popular baby name for Assyrian girls.

History[edit]

Throughout history to the present time, Duhok has acquired a strategic position historically and geographically. Between the 25th and 22nd century BC, it changed hands between the Akkadians, Sumerians, Assyrians, Amorites, Gutians, Hurrians and Hattians, before becoming an integral part of Assyria from the mid 21st century BC until the dissolution of Assyria (then known as Athura/Assuristan) in the mid 7th century AD after the Arab Islamic Conquest.[2]

During the Assyrian period the town was named Nohadra (and also Bit Nuhadra or Naarda), where, during the Parthian-Sassanid rule in Assyria (c. 160 BC to 250 AD) as Beth Nuhadra gained semi-independence as one of a patchwork of Neo-Assyrian kingdoms in Assyria, which also included Adiabene, Osroene, Assur and Beth Garmai. During the Christian era became an eparchy within the Assyrian Church of the East metropolitanate of Ḥadyab (Erbil).[3][4]

The city became prominent again in 1236, when Hasan Beg Saifadin joined the Kurdish Badinan principality. In 1842, the principality was dissolved by the Ottomans and connected to the city of Mosul.[5]

Duhok by night

In 1898 there were according to a report eleven small and private schools in the city, two Assyrian and two Jewish schools. In 1920 there were, in all of Iraq, only five primary schools that were accessible for girls, and one of them was in Duhok.

From 22 to 24 September 2005, Duhok held a cultural festival for the first time in Duhok to which Kurdish writers from all countries were invited.

Demographics[edit]

Multiple travelers commented on its ethnic composition in the 19th and early 20th century.

In 1820, Rich described it as a small town of 300 houses, which was the principal site of the Doski tribe, together with eighty other villages. The missionary Henry Aaron Stern (1851) commented on Duhok's mixed population and noted that it included Jewish residents, adding that the kiahya, or mayor of the village, was a Chaldean Catholic. In 1859, Rabbi Yehiel found there two minyans of Jews. The Muslims and Christians formed about a hundred households. In 1929, its settled population was about 3,500 inhabitants, with Kurds forming the majority. Out of the 550 households, 65 were Christian and 30 were Jewish. A sizeable number of Nestorian refugees previously from Tiyari and a lesser number of Chaldeans from the Turkish districts of Merga and Bothan migrated into Duhok in the aftermath of World War I. In 1929, the qada of Duhok had a mixed population of 29,858, composed mostly of Muslim Kurds (18,307), Christians 5,784 (19.3%), Muslim Arabs 2,068, Yezidis 2,870, and Jews 829 (2.7%).[6]

The city's population is made up of around 340,000 inhabitants, and consists mostly of Kurds with a significant Assyrian community as well. The Assyrians of Duhok boast one of the largest churches in the region named the Mar Marsi Cathedral, and is the center of an Eparchy.[7] Tens of thousands of Yazidi and Assyrian Christian internally displaced persons (IDPs) live in the city as well due to the ISIS invasion of Iraq in 2014 and the subsequent Fall of Mosul and the Nineveh Plains region after two more months of fighting, in addition to the Siege of Sinjar in which 5,000 Yezidis were massacred in what has been referred to as a genocide against them.[8][9] According to the International Organization for Migration (IOM-Iraq), as of June 2019, Duhok Governorate hosted 326,106 IDPs across 169 different locations.[10]

Educational institutions[edit]

List of current higher educational institutions in Duhok is as below:

Sport[edit]

The city is home to several sporting clubs including Duhok SC, a professional football club that plays in the Iraqi Premier League, its home stadium can hold up to 30,000 spectators[citation needed]. Another football team from the city is Zeravani SC which plays in the Kurdish Premier League. Duhok also has a range of other sport clubs, notably the Duhok Basketball Club. Duhok SC basketball competes in the Iraqi Division I Basketball League and successfully came third in FIBA Asia Champions Cup in 2012.

Duhok SC football club won the Iraqi premier league championship In the 2009/2010 season beating Talaba SC 1–0 to become the champions for the first time.

Climate[edit]

According to the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, Duhok has a borderline Semi-arid (BSh) and Mediterranean climate (Csa) with extremely hot, dry summers and cold wet winters, similar to most of the region in Upper Mesopotamia. Precipitation falls in the cooler months, being the heaviest in late winter and early spring. The city can get around two or three snowy days per year, with heavier falls in the uplands. Summers are virtually dry, with rain starting to occur by late autumn.

Climate data for Duhok, Iraq
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20
(68)
27
(81)
30
(86)
34
(93)
38
(100)
41
(106)
45
(113)
46
(115)
44
(111)
39
(102)
31
(88)
24
(75)
46
(115)
Average high °C (°F) 11
(52)
14
(57)
19
(66)
24
(75)
32
(90)
38
(100)
42
(108)
41
(106)
37
(99)
29
(84)
20
(68)
13
(55)
27
(80)
Daily mean °C (°F) 7
(45)
10
(50)
14
(57)
18
(64)
25
(77)
31
(88)
34
(93)
34
(93)
29
(84)
22
(72)
14
(57)
9
(48)
21
(69)
Average low °C (°F) 3
(37)
5
(41)
9
(48)
13
(55)
18
(64)
23
(73)
27
(81)
26
(79)
21
(70)
15
(59)
8
(46)
6
(43)
15
(58)
Record low °C (°F) −4
(25)
−6
(21)
−1
(30)
3
(37)
6
(43)
10
(50)
13
(55)
17
(63)
11
(52)
4
(39)
−2
(28)
−2
(28)
−6
(21)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 101
(4.0)
120
(4.7)
111
(4.4)
70
(2.8)
38
(1.5)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1
(0.0)
10
(0.4)
57
(2.2)
108
(4.3)
616
(24.3)
Average precipitation days 9 9 10 9 4 1 0 0 1 3 6 10 62
Average snowy days 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Average relative humidity (%) 60 53 46 39 23 15 13 15 17 28 42 62 34
Source #1: My Forecast[11]
Source #2: Levoyageur for rainfall[12]

See also[edit]

Twin towns[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Iraq: Governorates, Major Cities & Urban Centers - Population Statistics, Maps, Charts, Weather and Web Information". www.citypopulation.de.
  2. ^ http://www.uod.ac/site/en/duhokcity#sthash.m1dKO7nV.dpuf Archived 2014-12-18 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Société des études arméniennes, Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, Association de la revue des études arméniennes (1989). Revue des études arméniennes, Volume 21. pp. 303, 309.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. ^ NAARDA, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854)
  5. ^ BAHDĪNĀN. "Encyclopaedia Iranica". www.iranicaonline.org.
  6. ^ M. Zaken, Jewish Subjects and Their Tribal Chieftains in Kurdistan, 376 pp., Brill, 2007.
  7. ^ Mar Narsi church. "Dhouk". www.ishtartv.com.
  8. ^ Khalel, Sheren; Vickery, Matthew (27 October 2014). "The Forgotten Yazidis". Foreign Policy Magazine.
  9. ^ Interactive. "Iraq's exodus". www.aljazeera.com.
  10. ^ "DTM-IOM-Iraq Mission". iraqdtm.iom.int. Retrieved 2019-08-08.
  11. ^ "Dahuk, Iraq Climate". My Forecast. Retrieved 2014-01-04.
  12. ^ "Climate, weather, temperatures - City : DUHOK". Levoyageur. Retrieved 2014-01-04.

External links[edit]