Duke Jing of Jin (Ju)

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Ju (據)
Duke Jing of Jin
Ruler of Jin
Reign 599–581 BC
Predecessor Duke Cheng of Jin
Successor Duke Li of Jin
Died 581 BC
Full name
Ancestral name: Ji (姬)
Given name: Ju (據)
Father Duke Cheng of Jin

Duke Jing of Jin (simplified Chinese: 晋景公; traditional Chinese: 晉景公; pinyin: Jìn Jǐng Gōng, died 581 BC) was from 599 to 581 BC the ruler of the State of Jin, a major power during the Spring and Autumn period of ancient China. His ancestral name was Ji, given name Ju, and Duke Jing was his posthumous title. He succeeded his father Duke Cheng of Jin, who died in 600 BC.[1]

Battle of Bi[edit]

In 597 BC, the third year of Duke Jing's rule, King Zhuang of Chu attacked the State of Zheng, then a Jin ally. Duke Jing dispatched an army led by Xun Linfu (荀林父), Sui Hui (隨會), and Zhao Shuo (趙朔) to help Zheng. By the time the Jin army arrived, however, Zheng had already surrendered to Chu. Xun Linfu wanted to return to Jin, but general Xian Hu (先縠) persuaded him to attack Chu. The Jin army was then decisively defeated at the Battle of Bi by the Chu and Zheng forces. After the battle King Zhuang of Chu was recognized as the Hegemon of China.[1] Although Jin was weakened by the defeat, it was still one of the strongest states of China. Just two years later Jin attacked Zheng in retaliation for helping Chu in the Battle of Bi.[1]

Conquest of the Red Di[edit]

Xian Hu, who was partly responsible for Jin's defeat at the Battle of Bi, escaped to the Red Di tribes for fear of punishment.[1] In 596 BC, the Red Di people took advantage of Jin's recent defeat and attacked Jin with Xian Hu's help. Jin killed Xian Hu and his entire clan.[2]

Duke Jing's elder sister Bo Ji was the wife of Ying'er (嬰兒), the ruler of Lushi (潞氏), a major Red Di state. In 594 BC Bo Ji was killed by the Lushi minister Feng Shu. In retaliation, general Xun Linfu attacked Lushi, conquering the state and capturing its ruler Ying'er. Feng Shu fled to the State of Wey but was returned to Jin and killed. The following year, Jin conquered several more Red Di states or tribes.[3]

Battle of An[edit]

In 589 BC the State of Qi, another major power, attacked the states of Lu and Wey, two Jin allies, and annexed the Lu city of Long. In response, Duke Jing dispatched the Jin army led by generals Xi Ke, Shi Xie, Luan Shu, and Han Jue to help his allies. The Jin and Qi forces fought at An (near present-day Jinan), and Jin decisively defeated Qi. The Qi ruler Duke Qing narrowly escaped capture by exchanging clothes and position with officer Pang Choufu (逢丑父), who was taken prisoner by Han Jue mistaking him as Duke Qing. After the battle Duke Qing was forced to plead for peace and cede territory to the state of Lu. Winning the Battle of An enabled Jin to regain much of its prestige lost at the Battle of Bi, and expand its armed forces from three armies to six.[4]

Abdication and death[edit]

In summer 581 BC, the 19th year of his reign, Duke Jing fell ill. He abdicated in favor of his son Duke Li of Jin, and died a month later. According to the Chinese classic text Zuo Zhuan, he died after falling into the toilet pit.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Sima Qian. 晉世家 [House of Jin]. Records of the Grand Historian (in Chinese). Retrieved 12 April 2012. 
  2. ^ Zuo Qiuming (translator James Legge). "Book VII. Duke Xuan". Zuo Zhuan (in Chinese and English). University of Virginia. Retrieved 23 April 2012.  Chapter XIII.
  3. ^ Zuo Qiuming (translator James Legge). "Book VII. Duke Xuan". Zuo Zhuan (in Chinese and English). University of Virginia. Retrieved 23 April 2012.  Chapter XV.
  4. ^ Zuo Qiuming (translator James Legge). "Book VIII. Duke Cheng". Zuo Zhuan (in Chinese and English). University of Virginia. Retrieved 23 April 2012.  Chapter II.
  5. ^ Zuo Qiuming (translator James Legge). "Book VIII. Duke Cheng". Zuo Zhuan (in Chinese and English). University of Virginia. Retrieved 23 April 2012.  Chapter X.
Duke Jing of Jin
Cadet branch of the House of Ji
Died: 581 BC
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Duke Cheng of Jin
Duke of Jin
599–581 BC
Succeeded by
Duke Li of Jin