Robinson attended the University of Oklahoma, where he played for coach Bob Stoops' Oklahoma Sooners football team from 2005 to 2008. He was recognized as a consensus first-team All-American a junior in 2007, and again as a senior in 2008. He was also a two-time first-team All-Big 12 selection. Sports Illustrated magazine named him to its All-Decade Team in 2009.
Robinson was considered the number one guard prospect by many NFL scouting analyst and projected to go 2nd round of the draft until a poor performance in the BCS championship game prior to the draft. He was praised for his leadership, his ability to pass protect and be a force in the running game.