Duke of Camerino

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Dukedom of Camerino
Chest of Arms of Cear Borgia Duke of Valentinois.gif
Creation date 1502
Monarch Pope Alexander VI and Cardinal coincil
Peerage Vatican - Italy
First holder Cesar Borgia
Present holder House of Borgia

Duke of Camerino[1] is a title of nobility, originally in Papal peerage. It was created on 1503 by Apostolic authority of Pope Alexander VI and cardinal coincil over ancient Marquissate of Camerino which was part of Dukedom of Spoleto.

History[edit]

Camerino was a Welf Marquissate, under Varano family, its rulers participated in all conflicts between Ghibellines and Welfs. Meanwhile, Cesar Borgia was in Rome making his final plans for his intervention in Tuscany, in Camerino the Lord of Faenza Manfredo Astorre, fidelity at Papal authority is found floating in the Tiber, he had been strangled.

On June 5, Pope Alexander VI, excommunicated Giulio Cesare Varano, ruler of Camerino, accusing him of giving help to enemies of holy church. On June 23 Cesar Borgia left Rome with an army of 8000 troops, on 20 July, Cesar Borgia carriying the Apostolic authority, took Camerino and Giulio Cesare Varano prisoner. On 25 July and after Alexander VI and cardinal coincil received notice of Camerino´s capture, Cesar Borgia is invested by Apostolic authority and by cardinal coincil as Duke of Camerino,[2] being first time in history the denomination is used over the Camerino city and region of Camerino.[3]

Background[edit]

Cesar Borgia left then Dukedom of Camerino to his brother Giovanni Borgia, was named later Duke of Nepi and Duke of Pallestrina by Apostolic authority.[4] Giovanni Borgia carried many other titles and he did after death of Alexander VI a career as embassador. He died on November, 1555 in Genoa being embassador of Pope Paul III. The Dukedom of Camerino right remained in hands of Giovanni Borgia until his death when it passed to other branche of Borgia Family in reason of Patrimony formed by him under Sicilian and Spanish crowns cause he had three daughters and none son.

On 1503 Pope return Camerino to Juan Maria Varano in quality of Lord under Papal dukedom domine. On 1521 Juan, Lord of Camerino was deposed by his brother Segismund and he was reposed again in 1522. On 1534 Camerino is integrated to Dukedom of Spoleto but the ruler and Lady of Camerino was deposed by Pope on 1535, date in which is returned in quality of Marquissate to Ercole Varano for return to the Pope again in 1540 who gave Camerino to Octavio Farnesio, Duke of Parma.

Camerino was a policy piece in hands of Popes whose used it in pursuit policy alliances until 1555; in which the region remained definitely joined to Papal states until 1860, year which Camerino passed to new Kingdom of Italy.

The title of Duke of Camerino remained then in hands of Borgia family; nevertheless, it was used by the Popes without permission of Giovanni Borgia and his descendants. Giovanni Borgia received rents of Camerino until his death, the dukedom right passed to branche of House of Borgia.

Dukes of Camerino[edit]

Rulers under Papal domine

Papal rulers

Kingdom of Italy

According to the laws of the Italian Republic, the titles of nobility of Italy ceased to exist with the fall of the monarchical regime.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Olivier, Manuel. D. Rodrigo de Borja (Alejandro VI). Sus hijos y descendientes, Second tree, Cervantine Library. http://www.cervantesvirtual.com
  2. ^ L. William, George, Papal Genealogy, The Families of Renaissance Popes. p. 217. McFarland and Company Inc, Publishers, Jefferson, North Carolina, and London. ISBN 0-7864-2071-5, 1998, 2004
  3. ^ Hollingsworth, Mary. The Borgias: History's Most Notorious Dynasty. Published by: Quercus Edition Ltda. London, 2011. ISBN 9781782069447
  4. ^ Lola Galán, José Catalán Deus. El papa Borgia: Un inédito Alejandro VI liberado al fin de la leyenda negra. Edited and published by: Aguilar, Random House Mondadory, 2012. ISBN 9788403011762
  5. ^ L. William, George, Papal Genealogy, The Families of Renaissance Popes. p. 217. McFarland and Company Inc, Publishers, Jefferson, North Carolina, and London. ISBN 0-7864-2071-5, 1998, 2004.
  6. ^ L. William, George, Papal Genealogy, The Families of Renaissance Popes. p. 61. McFarland and Company Inc, Publishers, Jefferson, North Carolina, and London. ISBN 0-7864-2071-5, 1998, 2004 (Borgia)

Further reading[edit]

  • John W. Barker and Christopher Kleinhenz. "Camerino, Duchy of", Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia, ed. Christopher Kleinhenz (London and New York: Routledge, 2004), p. 173.
  • John E. Law. "The Ending of the Duchy of Camerino", Italy and the European Powers: the Impact of War, 1500–1530, ed. Christine Shaw (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2006), pp. 77–90.
  • John E. Law. "The Da Varano Lords of Camerino as Condottiere Princes", Mercenaries and Paid Men, ed. John France (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2008), pp. 89–104.