List of rulers of Crete

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This is a list of the rulers and governors of the island of Crete throughout its history.

Antiquity[edit]

Roman governors[edit]

Crete was conquered for the Roman Republic by Quintus Caecilius Metellus Creticus in 69 BC and united with the Cyrenaica in the province of Creta et Cyrenaica until 193 AD, when it became a separate province. After the reforms of Emperor Diocletian in the 290s, its governor held the rank of consularis.

Name Tenure
Marcus Licinius 36–31 BC
Publius Sulpicius Quirinius 15–13 BC
Lucius Plotius Vicina 2 BC – 7 AD
Cornelius Lupus during the reign of Tiberius
Aulus Minicius Rufus[1] 71/72
Catullus 72/73
Gaius Arinius Modestus 73–75
Silo during the reign of Vespasian
Aulus Julius Quadratus 84/85
Gaius Pomponius Gallus Didus Rufus 88/89
Sabinus during the reign of Domitian
 ? Helvius during the reign of Domitian
Gnaeus Suellius Rufus during the reign of Domitian/Trajan
Gaius Memmius ... 98/99
Lucius Elufrius Severus 99/100
Lucius Silius [...] First century AD
Lucius Aemilius Honoratus during the reign of Trajan
Titus Vibius Va[rus] during the reign of Trajan
Q. [...] 118/119
Salvius Carus 134/135
Quintus Caecilius Marcellus Dentilianus[2] 149/150
Quintus Julius Potitus between 145 and 161
Gaius Claudius Titianus Demostratus 161/162
Pomponius Naevianus between 165 and 169
Veturius Paccianus shortly before 168
Quintus Servilius Pudens after 164
Lucius Saevinus Proculus c. 173/174
Quintus Caecilius Rufinus between 160 and 180
Numisus Marcellianus between 161 and 180
Aglaus 286?/293 AD
M. Aur. Buzes 293/305 AD
Fl. Fursidius Aristides 372/376 AD
Oecumenius Dositheus Asclepiodotus 382–383 AD
Aemilius Quintilius Pyrrhus after 383 AD

Byzantine and Arab periods[edit]

Crete became part of the East Roman or Byzantine Empire upon the partition of the Roman Epire in 395 AD. It remained in Byzantine hands until it was conquered by Andalusian exiles in the mid-820s and became an emirate, nominally under Abbasid suzerainty. The emirate became a major base for Muslim naval raids along the coasts of the Byzantine Empire, and several attempts at reconquest failed. The Byzantines finally retook the island in 961 under the leadership of Nikephoros Phokas, and held it until 1205.

Byzantine governors[edit]

Name Tenure
Fortunatiatus Servilius 4th/5th century
Callinicus ca. 412/413
Helias ca. 539
Karykes ca. 1091/1092 or 1092/1093

Emirs of Crete[edit]

# Name Reign
1 Abu Hafs Umar I ibn Shuayb ibn Isa al-Ghaliz al-Iqritishi 827/828 – ca. 855
2 Shuayb I ibn Umar ca. 855–880
3 Abu Abdallah Umar II ibn Shuayb ca. 880–895
4 Muhammad ibn Shuayb al-Zarkun ca. 895–910
5 Yusuf ibn Umar II ca. 910–915
6 Ali ibn Yusuf ca. 915–925
7 Ahmad ibn Umar II ca. 925–940
8 Shuayb II ibn Ahmad 940–943
9 Ali ibn Ahmad 943–949
10 Abd al-Aziz ibn Shuayb II 949–961

Venetian period, 1212–1669[edit]

Genoese governors, 1204–1212[edit]

Name Rule
Henry, Count of Malta 1206–1210

Dukes of Crete, 1212–1669[edit]

The supreme Venetian governor of Crete bore the title of "Duke of Crete" (Italian: duca di Candia).

Name Tenure
Jacopo Tiepolo 1212–1216
Pietro Querini 1216
Domenico Delfino 1216–1217
Paolo Querini 1222
Giovanni Storlando 1228
Stefano Giustiniani 1236
Angelo Morosini 1255–1259
Giacomo Delfino 1261–1262
Giovanni Velenio 1273–1274
Marino Zeno 1274
Marino Morosini 1274–1276
Pietro Zeno 1276
Marino Gradenigo 1279
Giacomo Dandolo 1284
Albertino Morosini 1290–1293
Michel Vitali 1299
Nicolò Zani 1317
Mario Morosini 1329–1331
Viago Zeno 1333
Andrea Cornaro 1340
Nicolò Priuli 19 November 1340 – 10 February 1341
Petri Miani 26 October 1344 – 24 April 1345
Marco da Molin 24 April 1345 – 19 August 1347
Marco Cornaro 20 August 1347 – 25 November 1348
Marino Grimani 25 November 1348 – 17 September 1350
Pietro Gradenigo 24 September 1350 – 15 August 1352
Marino Morosini 20 September 1352 – 6 September 1355
Goffredo Morosini 6 September 1355 – 20 July 1357
Filippo Orio 30 July 1357 – 6 August 1358
Pietro Badoer 22 August 1358 – 14 July 1360
Leonardo Dandolo 12 October 1360 – 6 February 1362
Marco Gradenigo 1362–1364
Pietro Morosini 1364–1366
Paolo Zuliani 1382
Tommaso Mocenigo 1403–1405
Lodovico Morosini 1407–1409
Egidio Morosini 1417–1418
Andrea Mocenigo 1441–1443
Pedro Luis 1455
Giacomo Barozzi ca. 1463
Benedetto Gritti 1472–1473
Domenico Pisani 1480
Giovanni Borgia 1497
Girolamo Donato 1508–1510
Paolantonio Emiliano 1510
Giacomo Cornaro 1528
Giovanni Morosini ca. 1530
Antonio Morosini ca. 1530
Antonio Amulio 1536–1538
Giovanni Moro 1538
Ferdinando Vitturi 1539
Alvise Renier 1550
Lodovico Gritti 1552–1554
Zacharia Mocenigo 1559–1563
Marco di Lauro Querini 1570
Pasqual Cicogna 1585
Giovanni Sagredo 1604
Francesco Morosini 1612–1614
Donato Morosini 1617–1619
Lazaro Mocenigo 1629–1631
Bernardo Morosini 1644–1646
Giuseppe Morosini 1650–1653
Francesco Morosini 1656
Antonio Barbaro 1667
Girolamo Battagia 1667

Ottoman period, 1646–1898[edit]

Valis of Crete[edit]

Name Tenure
Çelebi Ismail Pasha 1693–1695
Hasan Pasha 1699/1700
Kalaylikoz Haci Ahmed Pasha 1701–1704
Abdullah Pasha 1704–1713
Hüseyin Pasha 1713
Kara Mehmed Pasha 1713–1718
Silahtar Ibrahim Pasha 1718–1719
Esad Pasha 1719–1720
Cerkes Osman Pasha 1720–1723
Osman Pasha 1723–1724
Hüseyin Pasha 1724–1725
Koca Mehmed Pasha 1725–1726
Osman Pasha 1726–1728
Haci Halil Pasha 1728–1729
Mehmed Pasha 1730–1731
Sahin Mehmed Pasha 1731
Azimzade Ismail Pasha 1731–1732
Haci Halil Pasha (again) 1732–1733
Haci Ali Pasha 1733–1734
Hafiz Ahmed Pasha 1734–1735
Haci Huseyin Pasha 1735–1736
Ismail Pasha 1736–1737
Haci Ivazzade Mehmed Pasha 1737–1740
Hüseyin Pasha 1740–1741
Sari Mehmed Pasha 1742
Haci Ivazzade Mehmed Pasha (again) 1742–1743
Numan Pasha 1743–1745
Ali Pasha 1745–1746
Köprülüzade Ahmed Pasha 1746–1747
Elçi Mustafa Pasha 1747–1750
Mustafa Pasha 1750
Ibrahim Pasha 1750–1751
Numan Pasha 1751–1754
Melek Mehmed Pasha 1754–1755
Mehmed Said Pasha 1755
Ali Pasha 1755–1757
Mehmed Pasha 1757–1758
Kiamil Ahmed Pasha 1758–1764
Tosun Mehmed Pasha 1764–1766
Hüsnü Pasha 1766–1768
Feyzullah Pasha 1768–1769
Tokmakzade Hasan Pasha 1769–1770
Ampra Süleyman Pasha 1771–1773
Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasha 1773–1774
Ibrahim Pasha 1774
Dervish Ali Pasha 1774–1776
Kara Ahmed Pasha 1776–1778
Ibrahim Pasha (again) 1778
Mustafa Pasha Hacizade 1778–1779
Mustafa Pasha Mirahor 1779
Mehmed Emin Pasha 1779–1780
Mustafa Pasha Hacizade (again) 1780
Raif Ismail Pasha 1781–1782
Aslan Pasha 1782–1783
Kassupis Seyit Ali Pasha 1783
Abdullah Pasha 1783–1784
Ekmezi Mehmed Pasha 1784–1786
Süleyman Pasha Zorlu 1786–1787
Mehmed Pasha 1787
Mustafa Pasha Hacizade (yet again) 1787
Mehmed Izzet Pasha 1787–1788
Ekmezi Mehmed Pasha (again) 1788–1789
Abdullah Pasha Azamzade 1789
Yusuf Pasha 1789–1790
Hüseyin Pasha 1790–1793
Hasan Pasha 1793–1797
Ferhad Pasha 1797
Said Hafiz Pasha 1797–1798
Mehmed Hakki Pasha 1798–1799
Tahir Pasha 1799–1801
Sami Pasha 1801–1802
Ardinli Mehmed Pasha 1802–1803
Abdullah Dervis Pasha 1803
Mustafa Hasip Pasha 1803–1804
Mehmed Hüsrev Pasha 1804–1805
Vani Mehmed Pasha 1805
Osman Pasha 1805–1806
Said Hafiz Pasha (again) 1806–1807
Kadri Pasha 1807–1808
Marasli Ali Pasha 1808–1809
Kadri Pasha (again) 1809–1810
Hafiz Pasha 1810–1811
Sami Bekir Pasha 1811–1812
Kurd Haci Osman Pasha 1812–1815
Ibrahim Pasha 1815–1816
Vehid Fazil Pasha 1816–1819
Hilmi Ibrahim Pasha 1819–1820
Serif Pasha 1820
Said Lütfullah Pasha 1820–1826
Kara Süleyman Pasha 1826–1829
Mehmed Zehrab Pasha 1829–1830
Mustafa Naili Pasha 1830–1851
Salih Vamik Pasha 1851–1852
Mehmed Emin Pasha 1852–1855
Veliüddin Pasha 1855–1857
Abdürrahman Sami Pasha 1857–1858
Hüseyin Hüsnü Pasha 1858–1859
Ismail Rahmi Pasha 1859–1861
Hekim Ismail Pasha 1861–1866
Mustafa Naili Pasha (again) 1866–1867
Hussein Avni Pasha 1867
Serdar Ekrem Ömer Pasha 1867
Hussein Avni Pasha (again) 1867–1868
Arif Efendi (acting) 1868
Kücük Ömer Fevzi Pasha 1868–1870
Rauf Pasha 1870–1871
Kücük Ömer Fevzi Pasha (again) 1871–1872
Redif Pasha 1872
Safvet Pasha 1872–1873
Rauf Pasha (again) 1873–1874
Hasan Sami 1874–1875
Redif Pasha (again) 1875
Ahmed Muhtar Pasha 1875–1876
Hasan Sami (again) 1876–1877
Konstantinos Adosidis Pasha 1877–1878
Ahmed Muhtar Pasha (again) 1878
Alexander Karatheodori Pasha 27 Nov 1878 – 14 Dec 1878
Ioannis Photiades Pasha 1879–1885
Ioannis Savas Pasha 1885–1887
Kostakis Anthopoulos Pasha 1887–1888
Nikolakis Sartinki Pasha 1888–1889
Hasan Reza Pasha 1889
Shakir Pasha 1889–1890
Ahmed Cevad Pasha 1890–1891
Mahmud Celaleddin Pasha 1891–1894
Turhan Pasha Përmeti 1894–1895
Iskender Pasha 1895–1896
Alexander Karatheodori Pasha (again) Feb 1896 – Mar 1896
Turhan Pasha Përmeti (again) 12 Mar 1896 – May 1896
Kölemen Abdullah Pasha May 1896 – Jun 1896
Djordje Berovich Pasha (Georgios Verovits) 28 Jun 1896 – 14 Feb 1897
Musavir Ismail Bey (acting) Feb 1897 – 4 Nov 1898
Ahmed Cevad Pasha (Ottoman Military Governor) 24 Jul 1897 – 10 Oct 1898
Shakir Pasha (Ottoman Military Governor) Oct 1898 – Nov 1898

Modern period, 1898–today[edit]

High Commissioners of the Cretan State[edit]

Crete became an autonomous state under international protection and nominal Ottoman suzerainty following the Greco-Turkish War of 1897. A High Commissioner of the Great Powers (Ύπατος Αρμοστής) was installed to govern the island. In 1908, the Cretan Assembly unilaterally declared union with Greece, but this was not recognized by Greece until the outbreak of the First Balkan War in October 1912 and internationally until 1913.

# Name Picture Took office Left office
1 Prince George of Greece and Denmark PrigkphpasGewrgios.jpg 21 December 1898 30 September 1906
2 Alexandros Zaimis Zaimis.jpg 1 October 1906 30 September 1911
3 Three-member Commission 30 September 1911 11 October 1912

Governors-General of Crete[edit]

From unification with Greece in 1912 until 1955, Crete as a whole was administered by a government-appointed governor-general (Greek: Γενικός Διοικητής Κρήτης), who supervised the administration of the island's four prefectures (Chania, Heraklion, Lasithi and Rethymno).

# Name Picture Took office Left office
1 Stefanos Dragoumis Stephanos Dragoumis.jpg 11 October 1912 30 May 1913
2 Georgios Ploumidis 1913 1913
3 Loukas Kanakaris-Roufos December 1913 April 1915
4 Ioannis Tsirimokos April 1915 1917
5 Konstantinos Tsaldaris Constantine Tsaldaris.jpg 1921 1922
6 Georgios Karpetopoulos§ 9 May 1922 28 August 1922
7 Polychronis Polychronidis 1922 1922
8 Dimitrios Tombazis 1922 1923
9 Periklis Mazarakis 1923 1924
10 Petros Evripaios 1924 1924
11 Nikolaos Paritsis 1924 1925
12 Manousos Koundouros 1925 1926
13 Nikolaos Zouridis 1926 1927
14 Titos Georgiadis 1927 1928
15 Georgios Katechakis§ Υποστράτηγος Κατεχάκης.png 10 March 1928 22 December 1930
16 Nikolaos Askoutsis§ 22 December 1930 25 May 1932
17 Dimitrios Kalitsounakis§ 26 May 1932 5 June 1932
18 Michail Katapotis§ 19 June 1932 4 November 1932
19 Vasileios Meimarakis§ 25 November 1932 16 January 1933
20 Michail Kyrkos§ 16 January 1933
21 Ioannis Moutzouridis§ 13 March 1933 25 May 1934
22 Ilias Aposkitis§ 25 May 1934 1 June 1935
23 Georgios Frangiadakis§ 19 July 1935 10 October 1935
24 Georgios Tsontos§ 10 October 1935 30 November 1935
25 Konstantinos Bakopoulos§ 7 December 1935 14 March 1936
26 Panagiotis Sfakianakis§ 18 May 1936 1941
27 Emmanouil Louladakis§ 1941 26 January 1943
28 Ioannis Passadakis§ 26 January 1943 10 October 1944
29 Agathangelos Xirouchakis 1944 1944
30 Nikolaos Papadakis 1944 1945
31 Manousos Voloudakis§ 29 January 1945 4 April 1946
32 Dionysios Voultsos§ 8 May 1946 4 November 1946
33 Emmanouil Papadogiannis§ 4 November 1946 24 January 1947
34 Evangelos Daskalakis§ 31 January 1947 17 February 1947
35 Christos Tzifakis 1947 1947
36 Emmanouil Baklatzis 1947 1948
37 Anastasios Hobitis 1948 1948
38 Polychronis Polychronidis 1948 1950
39 Nikolaos Krasadakis 1950
40 Stylianos Koundouros
41 Ioannis Konotiakis 1955
Notes: § denotes a person bearing cabinet rank as Minister General-Governor of Crete (Υπουργός Γενικός Διοικητής Κρήτης) or Vice-Minister General-Governor of Crete (Υφυπουργός Γενικός Διοικητής Κρήτης).

Regional governors of Crete[edit]

With the establishment of the region of Crete (Περιφέρεια Κρήτης) in 1986, Crete became again an administrative entity. Until 2011, the regional governors (περιφερειάρχες) were government-appointed, but in accordance to the Kallikratis reform they were replaced with elected officials.

Appointed governors[edit]

Elected governors[edit]

# Name Picture Took office Left office
1 Stavros Arnaoutakis 1 January 2011 incumbent

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Unless otherwise stated, the names of the proconsular governors from 71 to 135 are taken from Werner Eck, "Jahres- und Provinzialfasten der senatorischen Statthalter von 69/70 bis 138/139", Chiron, 12 (1982), pp. 281-362; 13 (1983), pp. 147-237
  2. ^ Unless otherwise stated, the names of the proconsular governors from 149 to 169 are taken from Géza Alföldy, Konsulat und Senatorenstand unter der Antoninen (Bonn: Rudolf Habelt Verlag, 1977), pp. 263f

External links[edit]