Duke of Cleveland

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Dukedom of Cleveland


Arms: Quarterly: 1st and 4th Grand-Quarters, Sable, three Swords in pile points downwards proper (Powlett); 2nd Grand-Quarters, Azure, three sinister Gaunlets Or (Vane); 3rd Grand-Quarters, grand-quarterly, 1st & 4th, Azure, three Fleurs-de-lis Or (France); 2nd & 3rd, Gules, three Lions Or, armed and langued Azure (England); 2nd grand-quarter, Or, a Lion rampant Gules, within a Double-Tressure flory counter-flory Gules (Scotland); 3rd grand-quarter, Azure, a Harp Or, stringed Argent (Ireland); charged at the centre point with a Baton Sinister Ermine (FitzRoy). Crests: 1st: a Dexter Gauntlet proper, bossed and rimmed Or, brandishing a Sword proper (Vane); 2nd: On a Chapeau Gules, turned up Ermine, a Lion passant guardant Or, gorged with a Collar compony Ermine and Azure, and crowned with a Ducal Coronet Gold (FitzRoy). Supporters: Dexter: A Lion Guardant Or, ducally crowned Azure, and gorged with a Collar compony Ermine and Azure. The 4th Duke’s arms are surrounded by the circlet of the Order of the Garter

Creation date29 January 1833
Created byKing William IV
PeeragePeerage of the United Kingdom
First holderWilliam Vane, 1st Marquess of Cleveland
Last holderHarry Powlett, 4th Duke of Cleveland
Remainder to1st Duke's heirs male of the body lawfully begotten
Subsidiary titlesMarquess of Cleveland
Earl of Darlington
Earl of Chichester
Viscount Barnard
Baron Barnard
Baron Raby
Baron Newbury
Extinction date21 August 1891
(Neither rashly nor timidly)
Barbara Palmer, 1st Duchess of Cleveland, and her son Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Cleveland

Duke of Cleveland was a title that was created twice, once in the Peerage of England and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The dukedoms were named after Cleveland in northern England.

The first creation in 1670 (along with the barony of Nonsuch and the earldom of Southampton) was for Barbara Castlemaine, a mistress of King Charles II. The dukedom was created with a special remainder allowing it to be inherited by her first son, Charles FitzRoy, and his heirs male, then by her third son, George FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Northumberland, both being her illegitimate sons by Charles II. Charles FitzRoy was created Duke of Southampton in 1675 and inherited the dukedom of Cleveland in 1709.

His son William inherited both dukedoms in 1730. He died without heirs male in 1774. As there were no heirs male descended from George FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Northumberland and the 1st Duchess of Cleveland's 2nd son (Henry Fitzroy, 1st Duke of Grafton) and his heirs male had not been made eligible to inherit the dukedom of Cleveland, the title became extinct.

The dukedom of Cleveland was created again on 29 January 1833 for William Vane, 3rd Earl of Darlington, along with the title Baron Raby.[1] He was a great-grandson of Charles FitzRoy, the second Duke of the first creation, and had already been created Marquess of Cleveland on 5 October 1827.[2] For more information on this creation, which became extinct in 1891, and the Vane family, see the Baron Barnard.

Dukes of Cleveland, first creation (1670)[edit]

The Dukes also held the titles of Countess of Southampton and Baroness Nonsuch, in the County of Surrey, created at the same time. The second and third Dukes also held the titles of Duke of Southampton, Earl of Chichester and Baron of Newbury, in the County of Berkshire (created 1675).

Dukes of Cleveland, second creation (1833)[edit]

Arms of Vane: Azure, three sinister gauntlets (appaumée) or.[3] These are a difference of the arms of the Fane family, Earls of Westmorland from 1624, which show: three dexter gauntlets back affrontée, with identical tinctures

Other titles held by these Dukes include Marquess of Cleveland (1827), Earl of Darlington, in the County of Durham and Viscount Barnard, of Barnard's Castle in the county of Durham (1754), Baron Barnard, of Barnard's Castle in the Bishopric of Durham (1698), and Baron Raby, of Raby Castle in the County Durham (1833).

Family tree[edit]


  1. ^ "No. 19013". The London Gazette. 15 January 1833. p. 97.
  2. ^ "No. 18397". The London Gazette. 18 September 1827. p. 1955.
  3. ^ Debrett's Peerage, 1968, p. 115, which omits appaumée, useful in differentiating from Fane arms; concerning appaumée Cussans (1898) states: "In blazoning a Hand, besides stating what position it occupies, and whether it be the dexter or sinister, and erased or couped, it must be mentioned whether it be clenched or appaumé". (Cussans, John, Handbook of Heraldry, 2nd ed., London, 1868, p.47, p. 92)