Duke of Cleveland

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Arms of the 4th Duke of Cleveland

Blazon

Arms: Quarterly: 1st and 4th Grand-Quarters, Sable, three Swords in pile points downwards proper (Powlett); 2nd Grand-Quarters, Azure, three sinister Gaunlets Or (Vane); 3rd Grand-Quarters, grand-quarterly, 1st & 4th, Azure, three Fleurs-de-lis Or (France); 2nd & 3rd, Gules, three Lions Or, armed and langued Azure (England); 2nd grand-quarter, Or, a Lion rampant Gules, within a Double-Tressure flory counter-flory Gules (Scotland); 3rd grand-quarter, Azure, a Harp Or, stringed Argent (Ireland); charged at the centre point with a Baton Sinister Ermine (FitzRoy). Crests: 1st: a Dexter Gauntlet proper, bossed and rimmed Or, brandishing a Sword proper (Vane); 2nd: On a Chapeau Gules, turned up Ermine, a Lion passant guardant Or, gorged with a Collar compony Ermine and Azure, and crowned with a Ducal Coronet Gold (FitzRoy). Supporters: Dexter: A Lion Guardant Or, ducally crowned Azure, and gorged with a Collar compony Ermine and Azure. The 4th Duke’s arms are surrounded by the circlet of the Order of the Garter

Creation date29 January 1833
CreationSecond
MonarchWilliam IV
PeeragePeerage of the United Kingdom
First holderWilliam Vane, 1st Marquess of Cleveland
Last holderHarry Powlett, 4th Duke of Cleveland
Remainder toThe 1st Dukes’s heirs male of the body lawfully begotten
Subsidiary titlesMarquess of Cleveland
Earl of Darlington
Viscount Barnard
Baron Barnard
Baron Raby
StatusExtinct
Extinction date21 August 1891
MottoNEC TEMERE NEC TIMERE
(Neither rashly nor timidly)

Duke of Cleveland is a title that has been created twice, once in the Peerage of England and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The dukedoms were named after Cleveland in northern England.

The first creation in 1670 (along with the barony of Nonsuch and the earldom of Southampton) was for Barbara Castlemaine, a mistress of King Charles II. The dukedom was created with a special remainder allowing it to be inherited by her first son, Charles FitzRoy, and his heirs male, then by her third son, George FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Northumberland, both being her illegitimate sons by Charles II. Charles FitzRoy was created Duke of Southampton in 1675 and inherited the dukedom of Cleveland in 1709.

His son William inherited both dukedoms in 1730. He died without heirs male in 1774. As there were no heirs male descended from George FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Northumberland and the 1st Duchess of Cleveland's 2nd son (Henry Fitzroy, 1st Duke of Grafton) and his heirs male had not been made eligible to inherit the dukedom of Cleveland, the title became extinct.

The dukedom of Cleveland was created again on 29 January 1833 for William Vane, 3rd Earl of Darlington, along with the title Baron Raby.[1] He was a great-grandson of Charles FitzRoy, the second Duke of the first creation, and had already been created Marquess of Cleveland on 5 October 1827.[2] For more information on this creation, which became extinct in 1891, and the Vane family, see the Baron Barnard.

Dukes of Cleveland, first Creation (1670)[edit]

Other titles (all): Countess of Southampton and Baroness Nonsuch, in the County of Surrey (1670)
Other titles (2nd onwards): Duke of Southampton, Earl of Chichester and Baron of Newbury, in the County of Berkshire (1675)

Dukes of Cleveland, second Creation (1833)[edit]

Arms of Vane: Azure, three sinister gauntlets (appaumée) or[3] These are a difference of the arms of the Fane family, Earls of Westmorland from 1624, which show: three dexter gauntlets back affrontée, with identical tinctures
Other titles: Marquess of Cleveland (1827), Earl of Darlington, in the County of Durham and Viscount Barnard, of Barnard's Castle in the county of Durham (1754), Baron Barnard, of Barnard's Castle in the Bishopric of Durham (1698), Baron Raby, of Raby Castle in the County Durham (1833)

Family tree[edit]

FitzRoy & Vane family tree: Dukes of Cleveland
 
 
 
 
 
 
DUCHESS OF CLEVELAND, 1670
 
 
King Charles II
(1630–r.1660–1685)
 
Barbara Palmer,
1st Duchess of Cleveland

(1640–1709)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Duke of Monmouth
Dukes of Buccleuch
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Duke of Northumberland
 
 
Dukes of Richmond
& Lennox
 
 
Earl of Plymouth
 
 
Dukes of Grafton
 
Dukes of St Albans
 
 
 
 
DUKE OF SOUTHAMPTON, 1675
 
 
 
 
Charles FitzRoy,
1st Duke of Southampton,
2nd Duke of Cleveland

illegitimate
(1662–1730)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Earl of Darlington
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
William FitzRoy,
2nd Duke of Southampton,
3rd Duke of Cleveland

(1698–1774)
 
Lady Grace Fitzroy
(1697–1763)
 
Henry Vane,
1st Earl of Darlington

(c.1705–1758)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Henry Vane,
2nd Earl of Darlington

(1726–1792)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
DUKE OF CLEVELAND, 1833
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
William Harry Vane,
3rd Earl of Darlington,
1st Duke of Cleveland

(1766–1842)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Henry Vane,
4th Earl of Darlington,
2nd Duke of Cleveland

(1788–1864)
 
William John Frederick Vane,
5th Earl of Darlington,
3rd Duke of Cleveland

(1792–1864)
 
Harry George Vane (Powlett),
6th Earl of Darlington,
4th Duke of Cleveland

(1803–1891)

References[edit]

  1. ^ "No. 19013". The London Gazette. 15 January 1833. p. 97.
  2. ^ "No. 18397". The London Gazette. 18 September 1827. p. 1955.
  3. ^ Debrett's Peerage, 1968, p.115, which omits appaumée, useful in differentiating from Fane arms; concerning appaumée Cussans (1898) states: "In blazoning a Hand, besides stating what position it occupies, and whether it be the dexter or sinister, and erased or couped, it must be mentioned whether it be clenched or appaumé". (Cussans, John, Handbook of Heraldry, 2nd Edition, London, 1868, p.47[1], p.92)