Duke of Ireland
The title of Duke of Ireland was created in 1386 for Robert de Vere, 9th Earl of Oxford (1362–1392), the favourite of King Richard II of England, who had previously been created Marquess of Dublin. Both were peerages for one life only. At this time, only the Pale of Ireland (the Lordship of Ireland) was under English control. Despite its name, the Dukedom of Ireland is generally considered to have been one in the Peerage of England, and is the first time that a Ducal title was created for someone who was not a close relative of the King.
The Duke fell from favour shortly after receiving the title, which was forfeited in 1388.
- Fox-Davies, Complete Guide to Heraldry, p. 596; Oxford Guide to Heraldry, p. 69.