List of rulers of Milan

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The following is a list of rulers of the Milan from the 13th century to 1814, when Milan and the rest of Lombardy were incorporated into the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia after the Congress of Vienna.

Lordship of Milan (1259–1395)[edit]

Until 1259, Milan was a free commune, ruling itself with city's oligarchy, who elected a podestà. The Della Torres were a notable family that gain the power in 1240, when Pagano della Torre was elected podestà. After his death, his nephew Martino was elected podestà but, using his power, at the end of his tenure did a coup d'état and proclamed himself the first "Lord of Milan", establishing the city's Signoria (Italian for "Lordship"). Another powerful family were Viscontis, who finally became Dukes of Milan.

Political factions

      Ghibellines       Guelphs

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
No image.svg Coa fam ITA della torre.jpg Martino della Torre 8 September 1259 20 November 1263  • Nephew of Pagano Captain of the People
No image.svg Coa fam ITA della torre.jpg Filippo della Torre 20 November 1263 24 December 1265  • Brother of Martino Ancient of the City
No image.svg Escudo Napoleón della Torre.jpg Napoleone della Torre 24 December 1265 21 January 1277  • Son of Pagano Ancient of the City
Ottone Visconti.jpg Arms of the House of Visconti (1277).svg Archbishop Ottone Visconti 21 January 1277 5 August 1278  • None; defeat Napoleone Archbishop of Milan
No image.svg Coat of arms of the House of Alerami.svg Guglielmo VII di Monferrato 5 August 1278 27 December 1281  • None; appointed by Ottone Visconti Captain of the People,
Marquess of Montferrat
Matteo I Visconti.jpg Arms of the House of Visconti (1277).svg Matteo I Visconti 27 December 1281 June 1302  • Grandnephew of Ottone Captain of the People
No image.svg Coa fam ITA della torre.jpg Guido della Torre June 1302 February 1311  • Nephew of Napoleone Podestà
Matteo I Visconti.jpg Arms of the House of Visconti (1277).svg Matteo I Visconti February 1311 24 June 1322  • Grandnephew of Ottone Captain of the People
Galeazzo I Visconti.jpg Arms of the House of Visconti (1277).svg Galeazzo I Visconti 24 June 1322 6 August 1328  • Son of Matteo Imperial vicar of Milan
Azzone Visconti.png Arms of the House of Visconti (1277).svg Azzone Visconti 6 August 1328 16 August 1339  • Son of Galeazzo Imperial vicar of Milan
Lucchino Visconti.jpg Arms of the House of Visconti (1277).svg Luchino Visconti 16 August 1339 24 January 1349  • Son of Matteo

 • Brother of Azzone

Imperial vicar of Milan
Giovanni Visconti.jpg Arms of the House of Visconti (1277).svg Archbishop Giovanni Visconti 24 January 1349 5 October 1354  • Son of Matteo

 • Brother of Azzone and Luchino

Archbishop of Milan
Matteo II Visconti.jpg Arms of the House of Visconti (1277).svg Matteo II Visconti
Galeazzo II Visconti
Bernabò Visconti
5 October 1354 29 December 1355  • Grandsons of Matteo I
Galeazzo Visconti.png 5 October 1354 4 August 1378
Bernabò Visconti.jpg 5 October 1354 6 May 1385
Gian Galeazzo Visconti.jpg Arms of the House of Visconti (1277).svg Gian Galeazzo Visconti 6 May 1385 5 September 1395  • Son of Galeazzo II Imperial vicar of Milan

Duchy of Milan (1395–1797)[edit]

In 1395, Gian Galeazzo was appointed by Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia as "Duke of Milan", title purchased. In 1447, with the death of Filippo Maria Visconti, the original line of Viscontis ended, and the Golden Ambrosian Republic was established. After three years, Francesco Sforza, descendant from Visconti's female line, overthrow the Republic and re-established the Duchy. During the Renaissance, the Italian Wars undermined the Sforza's rule on Milan (allied with the Holy Roman Empire, the Sforzas were usurped several times by French kings), and in 1535 Francesco II Sforza died without heir, ending the original line of the Sforzas. In 1540, Charles V, uncle of the wife of Francesco II, Christina of Denmark annexed the Duchy and appointed his son Philip II of Spain as Duke. In 1714, with the end of the War of the Spanish Succession, Milan and its territories were conquered by Austrian Empire. In 1814, the Duchy of Milan was integrated in the new Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia, part of the Habsburg territories.

House of Visconti[edit]

Main article: House of Visconti
Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Marriage(s)
Issue
Gian Galeazzo Visconti.jpg Coat of arms of the House of Visconti (1395).svg Gian Galeazzo Visconti 5 September 1395 3 September 1402  • Son of Galeazzo II (1) Isabella, Countess of Vertus
4 children

(2) Caterina Visconti
2 children

Giovan Maria Visconti.png Coat of arms of the House of Visconti (1395).svg Giovanni Maria Visconti 3 September 1402 16 May 1412  • Son of Gian Galeazzo and Caterina Antonia Malatesta of Cesena
No children
Filippo Maria Visconti.jpg Coat of arms of the House of Visconti (1395).svg Filippo Maria Visconti 16 May 1412 13 August 1447  • Son of Gian Galeazzo and Caterina (1) Beatrice Lascaris di Tenda
No children

(2) Marie of Savoy
No children (*) Agnese del Maino (mistress)
1 daughter

House of Sforza[edit]

Main article: House of Sforza
Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Marriage(s)
Issue
Francesco Sforza.jpg Arms of the House of Sforza.svg Francesco Sforza 25 March 1450 8 March 1466  • Son-in-law of Filippo Maria (1) Polissena Ruffo
1 daughter

(2) Bianca Maria Visconti
8 children

Piero Pollaiuolo Portrait of Galeazzo Maria Sforza.jpg Arms of the House of Sforza.svg Galeazzo Maria Sforza 8 March 1466 26 December 1476  • Son of Francesco Bona of Savoy
4 children
Gian Galeazzo II. Maria Sforza.jpg Arms of the House of Sforza.svg Gian Galeazzo Sforza 26 December 1476 21 October 1494  • Son of Galeazzo Maria Isabella of Aragon
3 children
Pala Sforzesca - detail 01.jpg Arms of the House of Sforza.svg Ludovico Sforza 21 October 1494 6 September 1499  • Son of Francesco Beatrice d'Este
2 children

House of Valois-Orléans[edit]

Main article: House of Valois
Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Marriage(s)
Issue
Louis-xii-roi-de-france.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France (Moderne).svg Louis XII of France 6 September 1499 16 June 1512  • Descendant of Valentina Visconti (1) Joan, Duchess of Berry
No children

(2) Anne of Brittany
6 children (3) Mary Tudor
No children

House of Sforza[edit]

Main article: House of Sforza
Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Marriage(s)
Issue
Massimiliano Sforza by G.A. de Predis (Donatus Grammatica) photoshoped.jpg Arms of the House of Sforza.svg Massimiliano Sforza 9 January 1513 5 October 1515  • Son of Ludovico Unmarried

House of Valois-Angoulême[edit]

Main article: House of Valois
Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Marriage(s)
Issue
Francis1-1.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France (Moderne).svg Francis I of France 11 October 1515 19 November 1521  • Son-in-law of Louis XII (1) Claude, Duchess of Brittany
7 children

(2) Eleanor of Austria
No children

House of Sforza[edit]

Main article: House of Sforza
Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Marriage(s)
Issue
Tiziano e-o bottega, ritratto di francesco II sforza Cropped.JPG Arms of the House of Sforza.svg Francesco II Sforza 4 April 1522 24 October 1535  • Son of Ludovico Christina of Denmark
No children

House of Habsburg-Spain[edit]

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Marriage(s)
Issue
Philip II portrait by Titian.jpg Coat of Arms of the King of Spain as Monarch of Milan (1580-1700).svg Philip II of Spain 11 October 1540 13 September 1598  • Nephew of Christine of Denmark (1) Maria Manuela, Princess of Portugal
1 children

(2) Mary I of England
No children (3) Elisabeth of Valois
5 daughters (4) Anna of Austria
5 children

Andres López 001.jpg Coat of Arms of the King of Spain as Monarch of Milan (1580-1700).svg Philip III of Spain 13 September 1598 31 March 1621  • Son of Philip II Margaret of Austria
8 children
Philip IV of Spain.jpg Coat of Arms of the King of Spain as Monarch of Milan (1580-1700).svg Philip IV of Spain 31 March 1621 17 September 1665  • Son of Philip III (1) Elizabeth of France
7 children

(2) Mariana of Austria
5 children

Charles II of Spain anonymous portrait.jpg Coat of Arms of the King of Spain as Monarch of Milan (1580-1700).svg Charles II of Spain 17 September 1665 1 November 1700  • Son of Philip IV (1) Marie Louise of Orléans
No children

(2) Maria Anna of Neuburg
No children

House of Bourbon-Spain[edit]

Main article: House of Bourbon
Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Marriage(s)
Issue
Philip V of Spain.jpg Coat of Arms of the King of Spain as Monarch of Milan (1700-1714).svg Philip V of Spain 16 November 1700 24 September 1706  • None (1) Maria Luisa of Savoy
4 children

(2) Elisabeth Farnese
7 children

House of Habsburg[edit]

Main article: House of Habsburg
Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Marriage(s)
Issue
Emperor Charles VI.jpg Arms of the House of Sforza.svg Charles VI of Austria 12 January 1707 20 October 1740  • None Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
4 children
Maria-Theresia van Oostenrijk - Liotard.jpg Arms of the House of Sforza.svg Maria Theresa of Austria 20 October 1740 20 November 1780  • Daughter of Charles VI Francis I of Lorraine
16 children

House of Habsburg-Lorraine[edit]

Main article: House of Lorraine
Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Marriage(s)
Issue
Joseph Hickel (attr) Joseph II als Mitregent seiner Mutter.jpg Arms of the House of Sforza.svg Joseph II of Austria 29 November 1780 20 February 1790  • Son of Maria Theresa (1) Princess Isabella of Parma
2 daughters

(2) Maria Josepha of Bavaria
No children

Kaiser Leopold II in Feldmarschallsuniform c1790.jpg Arms of the House of Sforza.svg Leopold II of Austria 20 February 1790 1 March 1792  • Son of Maria Theresa Maria Luisa of Spain
16 children
Franz II Kaiser.jpg Arms of the House of Sforza.svg Francis II of Austria 1 March 1792 15 May 1796  • Son of Leopold II (1) Duchess Elisabeth of Württemberg
1 daughter

(2) Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily
11 children (3) Maria Ludovika of Austria-Este
No children (4) Caroline Augusta of Bavaria
No children

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]