Duke of Richelieu
Duke of Richelieu was a title in the French nobility. It was created on 26 November 1629 for Armand Jean Cardinal du Plessis, (Cardinal Richelieu) who, as a Roman Catholic clergyman, had no issue to pass it down to. It instead passed to his great-nephew, Armand Jean de Vignerot, grandson of his elder sister Françoise (1577–1615), who had married René de Vignerot, Seigneur de Pontcourlay († 1625).
Armand Jean de Vignerot added the cardinal's surname of du Plessis to his own, took the cardinal's coat of arms and received the titles of Duke of Richelieu and Peer of France by letters patent in 1657.
Two new reversions of the title occurred in 1822 and 1879. In effect, Armand Emmanuel du Plessis died without an heir, but he gained permission for the title of Duke of Richelieu to pass to the son of his half-sister Simplicie, daughter of Antoine-Pierre de La Chapelle de Saint-Jean de Jumilhac, with reversion to the descendants of his younger brother should he die without a male heir, thus effectively passing the title to his nephew.
List of dukes of Richelieu
- 1629–1642: Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu (1585–1642), cardinal, 1st Duke of Richelieu, first minister under Louis XIII.
- 1657–1715: Armand Jean de Vignerot du Plessis (1629–1715), 2nd Duke of Richelieu, great-nephew of the former.
- 1715–1788: Louis François Armand de Vignerot du Plessis (1696–1788), 3rd Duke of Richelieu, marshal of France, son of the former.
- 1788–1791: Louis Antoine Sophie de Vignerot du Plessis (1736–1791), 4th Duke of Richelieu, son of the former.
- 1791–1822: Armand Emmanuel de Vignerot du Plessis (1766–1822), 5th Duke of Richelieu, président du Conseil and Foreign Minister, son of the former.
- 1822–1879: Armand François Odet de La Chapelle de Saint-Jean de Jumilhac (1804–1879), 6th Duke of Richelieu, nephew of the former.
- 1879–1880: Marie Odet Richard Armand de La Chapelle de Saint-Jean de Jumilhac (1847–1880), 7th Duke of Richelieu, nephew of the former.
- 1880–1952: Marie Odet Jean Armand de La Chapelle de Saint-Jean de Jumilhac (1875–1952), 8th Duke of Richelieu, son of the former.
Notes and references
- The surname Vignerot, held by the brother-in-law of Richelieu and his descendants, was also spelled Vignerod.