Duke of Rutland

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"Baron Roos" redirects here. For the Barons Roos of Helmsley, see Baron de Ros.
The arms of Manners, Dukes of Rutland: Or, two bars azure a chief quarterly azure and gules; in the 1st and 4th quarters two fleurs-de-lis and in the 2nd and 3rd a lion passant guardant all or[1] The original coat of arms of the Manners family showed a chief gules. The quartering in chief, with the fleurs-de-lis of France and lion passant guardant of England, was granted as an augmentation by King Henry VIII to Thomas Manners at the time of his creation as Earl of Rutland, in recognition of his descent in the maternal line from King Edward IV.[2]

Duke of Rutland is a title in the Peerage of England, derived from Rutland, a county in the East Midlands of England. Earldoms named after Rutland have been created twice in history, and the ninth earl of the second creation was made a duke in 1703.

Earldom of Rutland[edit]

First creation[edit]

The title Earl of Rutland was created on 25 February 1390[3] for Edward of Norwich (1373–1415), son of Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, and grandson of King Edward III. Upon the Duke's death in 1402 Edward became Duke of York. The title Earl of Rutland fell into disuse upon his death at the Battle of Agincourt, and was assumed by other members of the House of York including the first earl's nephew Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, the father of King Edward IV.

Second creation[edit]

The title Earl of Rutland was created on 29 January 1446[3] for Edmund (1443–1460), second son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York (and younger brother of the future King Edward IV).

Third creation[edit]

Thomas Manners (c. 1488–1543), son of the 11th Baron de Ros of Hamlake, Truibut and Belvoir, was created Earl of Rutland in the Peerage of England in 1525. He was the great-grandson of Richard Plantagenet. The barony of 'de Ros of Hamlake, Truibut and Belvoir' (sometimes spelled Ros, Roos or de Roos) was created by Simon de Montfort with a writ of summons to the House of Lords for Robert de Ros (1223–1285) in 1264. The title may pass through the female line when there is no male heir, and accordingly, when the 3rd Earl, Edward Manners (c. 1548–1587), left no sons, the barony of Ros passed to the family of his daughter Elizabeth (d. 1591) who became the wife of the 2nd Earl of Exeter. The 3rd Earl was succeeded as 4th Earl by his brother John (d. 1588). The barony of Ros was restored to the Manners family when Francis Manners, the 6th Earl (1578–1632), inherited it in 1618 from his cousin William Cecil (1590–1618). However, Francis died without male issue and the assumption of the courtesy title of Lord Ros for the eldest son of subsequent earls appears to have had no legal basis. On the death of the seventh Earl in 1641 the Earldom passed to his distant cousin John Manners of Haddon Hall, grandson of the second son of the first Earl.

Dukedom of Rutland[edit]

In 1703, the ninth Earl of Rutland was created Duke of Rutland and Marquess of Granby by Queen Anne.

Marquess of Granby[edit]

The most notable Marquess of Granby was John Manners (1721–1770), eldest son of the third Duke. He was an accomplished soldier and highly popular figure of his time; in 1745 he became a colonel; his military career flourished during the Seven Years' War.

At the Battle of Minden (8 August, 1759), although his role was small, he commanded the reserve cavalry. In 1760, at the Battle of Warburg, he led a cavalry charge which routed the French, losing his hat and wig in the process. In recognition of this, soldiers of the Blues and Royals (his former regiment) have the unique privilege in the British Army of being permitted to salute while not wearing headgear. Granby's losing his helmet and wig in the charge gave rise to the expression 'going bald-headed' at something.[4]

In 1758, the King made him Colonel of the Royal Horse Guards and in 1766, as Lieutenant-General, he became Commander-in-Chief (a basically political appointment). His title was honoured by being used by a large number of pubs throughout Britain. It is truly sad that the reason is so little known.[5] As Colonel, he provided for his most capable soldiers such that when they could no longer be of service to the Regiment, he would "grub-stake" them to start a pub - the sole condition being that the Pub was to be named "The Marquis of Granby" after him. This was also a great conversation starter for the original owner of the pub -- an overture to descriptions of military service, lost friends and distant lovers. Thus the name is a still-lasting tribute to a one-man "Welfare State provider", and to the capable men who served their nation and then their nation's brews. If the name of such a Pub is ever changed, it diminishes history.[6] The towns of Granby, Quebec in Canada and Granby, Massachusetts in the United States as well as Granby Street in Norfolk, Virginia, USA were also named after him.

He died before his father, and therefore did not become Duke.

Subsidiary titles[edit]

The subsidiary titles of the dukedom are: Marquess of Granby (created 1703), Earl of Rutland (1525), Baron Manners, of Haddon in the County of Derby (1679), and Baron Roos of Belvoir, of Belvoir in the County of Leicester (1896). The title Baron Roos of Belvoir is in the Peerage of the United Kingdom; the remaining titles being in the Peerage of England. The most senior subsidiary title, Marquess of Granby, is the courtesy title used by the Duke's eldest son and heir.

Coat of arms[edit]

The original coat of arms of the Manners family was plain gules in chief. The quartering in chief, with the fleurs-de-lis of France and lion passant guardant of England, was granted by King Henry VIII to Thomas Manners at the time of his creation as Earl of Rutland, in recognition of his descent in the maternal line from King Edward IV.[2]

Family seat[edit]

Haddon Hall, Nether Haddon, Derbyshire

The Manners family own medieval Haddon Hall, Derbyshire and Belvoir Castle, Leicestershire that were successively extended and rebuilt until the 19th century. Some rooms in both buildings are open to the public.[7] They are Grade I in architecture, set in listed parks, woodland and gardens and span a central water feature, which acted as models for other landscaped estates.[8]

In 2009 to mark 500 years of the occupancy of Belvoir Castle by the family two aircraft from RAF Cranwell, Lincolnshire, bore the Duke of Rutland's Coat of Arms. On 11 June 2009 the Duke visited the station to see the aircraft — a King Air from 45 (Reserve) Sqn and a Dominie from 55 (Reserve) Sdn.[9]

Burials[edit]

The traditional burial place of the Manners family was St Mary the Virgin's Church, Bottesford. Since elevation to the dukedom in 1703 most Dukes have been buried in the grounds of the mausoleum at Belvoir Castle. The mausoleum at Belvoir Castle was built by John Henry Manners, 5th Duke of Rutland, following the death of his wife, Elizabeth Howard (1780-1825), daughter of the 5th Earl of Carlisle. After its construction, most of the 18th century monuments in Belton Church were moved to the mausoleum which then became the family’s main place of burial.[10]

Literature[edit]

Jorge Luis Borges recalls the duke of Rutland in his story "A Survey of the Works of Herbet Quain" in the book "The Garden of Forking Paths"

Earls of Rutland, first creation (1390)[edit]

Other titles (1st Duke): Duke of York (1385), Duke of Aumale (1397–1399), Earl of Cambridge (1362–1414), Earl of Rutland (1390–1402), Earl of Cork (c. 1396)

Edward of Norwich's brother, Richard of Conisburgh, had been attainted and executed for treason in August 1415. This attainture stood in the way of his son Richard Plantagenet succeeding Edward until the king deemed it prudent to restore them.

Other titles (2nd Duke): Duke of York (1385, restored 1425–1460), Earl of Ulster (1264), Earl of March (1328), Earl of Cambridge (1414, restored 1426), feudal Lord of Clare (bt. 1066–1075), Baron Mortimer of Wigmore (1331)

The Earldom fell out of use after the 2nd Earl. Its heir ascended the throne as Edward IV, so it would have merged with the crown anyway.

Earls of Rutland, second creation (1446)[edit]

Earls of Rutland, third creation (1525)[edit]

Other titles (1st–3rd & 6th Earls): Baron de Ros of Helmsley (1299)

Dukes of Rutland (1703)[edit]

Arms of the Dukes of Rutland
The 10th Duke in 1981, by Allan Warren
Other titles: Marquess of Granby (1703), Earl of Rutland (1525), Baron Manners of Haddon (1679) and Baron Roos of Belvoir (1896)

The heir apparent is Charles John Montague Manners, Marquess of Granby (b. 1999), elder son of the 11th Duke

Family Tree[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]