Duke of Bedford
|Dukedom of Bedford|
Argent, a lion rampant gules on a chief sable three escallops of the first (Russell).
|Creation date||11 May 1694|
|Monarch||William III and Mary II|
|Peerage||Peerage of England|
|First holder||William Russell, 5th Earl of Bedford|
|Present holder||Andrew Russell, 15th Duke|
|Heir apparent||Henry Russell, Marquess of Tavistock|
|Remainder to||1st Duke's heirs male of the body lawfully begotten|
|Subsidiary titles||Marquess of Tavistock|
Earl of Bedford
Baron Russell of Thornhaugh
Duke of Bedford (named after Bedford, England) is a title that has been created six times (for five distinct people) in the Peerage of England. The first and second creations came in 1414 in favour of Henry IV's third son, John, who later served as regent of France. He was made Earl of Kendal at the same time and was made Earl of Richmond later the same year. The titles became extinct on his death in 1435. The third creation came in 1470 in favour of George Neville, nephew of Warwick the Kingmaker. He was deprived of the title by Act of Parliament in 1478. The fourth creation came 1478 in favour of George, the third son of Edward IV. He died the following year at the age of two. The fifth creation came in 1485 in favour of Jasper Tudor, half-brother of Henry VI and uncle of Henry VII. He had already been created Earl of Pembroke in 1452. However, as he was a Lancastrian, his title was forfeited between 1461 and 1485 during the predominance of the House of York. He regained the earldom in 1485 when his nephew Henry VII came to the throne and was elevated to the dukedom the same year. He had no legitimate children and the titles became extinct on his death in 1495.
The Russell family currently holds the titles of Earl and Duke of Bedford. John Russell, a close advisor of Henry VIII and Edward VI, was granted the title of Earl of Bedford in 1551, and his descendant William, 5th Earl, was created Duke following the Glorious Revolution.
The subsidiary titles of the Duke of Bedford, all in the Peerage of England, are Marquess of Tavistock (created 1694), Earl of Bedford (1550), Baron Russell, of Cheneys (1539), Baron Russell of Thornhaugh in the County of Northampton (1603), and Baron Howland, of Streatham in the County of Surrey (1695) (and possibly the Barony of Bedford, which was merged into it in 1138, 1366 or 1414). The courtesy title of the Duke of Bedford's eldest son and heir is Marquess of Tavistock.
Every Duke from the 5th Duke onwards is descended from Charles II of England. The family seat is Woburn Abbey, Bedfordshire. The private mausoleum and chapel of the Russell Family and the Dukes of Bedford is at St. Michael’s Church in Chenies, Buckinghamshire (photo). The family owns The Bedford Estate in central London.
- 1 Dukes of Bedford, first Creation (1414)
- 2 Dukes of Bedford, second Creation (1433)
- 3 Dukes of Bedford, third Creation (1470)
- 4 Dukes of Bedford, fourth Creation (1478)
- 5 Dukes of Bedford, fifth Creation (1485)
- 6 Earls of Bedford (1551)
- 7 Dukes of Bedford, sixth Creation (1694)
- 8 Coat of arms
- 9 Line of succession
- 10 Family Tree
- 11 See also
- 12 Bibliography
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Dukes of Bedford, first Creation (1414)
Dukes of Bedford, second Creation (1433)
- Other titles: Earl of Kendal (1414) and Earl of Richmond (1414)
- John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford (1389–1435), regranted his dukedom with the standard remainder, died without issue
Dukes of Bedford, third Creation (1470)
- George Neville, 1st Duke of Bedford (1457–1483), nephew of Warwick the Kingmaker, succeeded as Marquess of Montagu and Baron Montagu in 1471, deprived of all of his honours in 1478
Dukes of Bedford, fourth Creation (1478)
Dukes of Bedford, fifth Creation (1485)
- Other titles: Earl of Pembroke (1452)
- Jasper Tudor, 1st Duke of Bedford (1431–1495), uncle of Henry VII, regained his earldom a few months after his nephew's accession. He died without legitimate issue.
Earls of Bedford (1551)
- Other titles: Baron Russell (1539)
- John Russell, 1st Earl of Bedford (c. 1485–1555), a close advisor of Henry VIII, was later created Earl of Bedford, by then a close advisor of Henry's son Edward VI, was further honoured by him
- Francis Russell, 2nd Earl of Bedford (1527–1585), son of the 1st Earl
- Edward Russell, Lord Russell (1551–1572), eldest son of the 2nd Earl
- John Russell, 3rd Baron Russell (c. 1553–1584), second son of the 2nd Earl, summoned to Parliament by writ of acceleration
- Francis Russell, Lord Russell (c. 1554–1585), third son of the 2nd Earl
- Edward Russell, 3rd Earl of Bedford (1572–1627), son of Francis, Lord Russell
- Other titles (4th Earl onwards): Baron Russell of Thornhaugh (1603)
- Francis Russell, 4th Earl of Bedford (1593–1641), cousin of the 3rd Earl and son of Lord Russell of Thornhaugh (fourth son of the 2nd Earl)
- William Russell, 5th Earl of Bedford (1616–1700), eldest son of the 4th Earl, was created Duke of Bedford in 1694
Dukes of Bedford, sixth Creation (1694)
- Other titles: Marquess of Tavistock (1694), Baron Howland (1695), Earl of Bedford (1551), Baron Russell (1538) and Baron Russell of Thornhaugh (1603)
- William Russell, 1st Duke of Bedford (1616–1700), was created Duke of Bedford in 1694, after the Glorious Revolution
- Francis Russell, Lord Russell (1638–1679), eldest son of the 1st Duke, died unmarried
- Rt. Hon. William Russell, Lord Russell (1639–1683), second son of the 1st Duke
- Wriothesley Russell, 2nd Duke of Bedford (1680–1711), only son of Rt. Hon. William Russell, Lord Russell (whose attainder had been reversed in 1688)
- William Russell, Marquess of Tavistock (1703), eldest son of the 2nd Duke, died in infancy
- William Russell, Marquess of Tavistock (1704–c. 1707), second son of the 2nd Duke, died young
- Wriothesley Russell, 3rd Duke of Bedford (1708–1732), third son of the 2nd Duke, died without issue
- John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford (1710–1771), fourth and youngest son of the 2nd Duke
- John Russell, Marquess of Tavistock (1732-1732), eldest son of the 4th Duke, died in infancy
- Francis Russell, Marquess of Tavistock (1739–1767), second son of the 4th Duke and father of the 5th and 6th Dukes
- Francis Russell, 5th Duke of Bedford (1765–1802), eldest son of Lord Tavistock, died without issue
- John Russell, 6th Duke of Bedford (1766–1839), second son of Lord Tavistock
- Francis Russell, 7th Duke of Bedford (1788–1861), eldest son of the 6th Duke
- William Russell, 8th Duke of Bedford (1809–1872), only son of the 7th Duke, died unmarried
- Francis Charles Hastings Russell, 9th Duke of Bedford (1819–1891), eldest son of Maj.-Gen. Lord George Russell, second son of the 6th Duke
- George William Francis Sackville Russell, 10th Duke of Bedford (1852–1893), eldest son of the 9th Duke, died without issue
- Herbrand Arthur Russell, 11th Duke of Bedford (1858–1940), second son of the 9th Duke
- Hastings William Sackville Russell, 12th Duke of Bedford (1888–1953), only son of the 11th Duke
- John Ian Robert Russell, 13th Duke of Bedford (1917–2002), eldest son of the 12th Duke
- Henry Robin Ian Russell, 14th Duke of Bedford (1940–2003), eldest son of the 13th Duke
- Andrew Ian Henry Russell, 15th Duke of Bedford (born 1962), eldest son of the 14th Duke
The heir apparent is the present holder's only son Henry Robin Charles Russell, Marquess of Tavistock (b. 2005).
Coat of arms
The heraldic blazon for the coat of arms of the Russell dukedom is: Argent, a lion rampant gules; on a chief sable, three escallops of the first.
The arms show a claim to be descended from the medieval lord Hugh de Rozel, which has been debunked, especially by J. Horace Round in his essay The Rozels of Bedford". The family tree on the website of Woburn Abbey only refers to the descent from the provable Stephen Russell in 1394.
The chief from these arms is present in the arms of the modern coat of arms of the London Borough of Camden, because the dukes of Bedford used to own land in the present borough.
Line of succession
- Henry Robin Charles Russell, Marquess of Tavistock (b. 2005), son of the 15th Duke
- Lord James Edward Herbrand Russell (b. 1975), third and youngest son of the 14th Duke
- Alexander Charles Robin Russell (b. 2010), eldest son of Lord James
- Leo William Caspar Russell (b. 2013), second and youngest son of Lord James
- Lord Rudolf Russell (b. 1944), second son of the 13th Duke
- Lord Francis Hastings Russell (b. 1950), third and youngest son of the 13th Duke
- John Francis Russell (b. 1997), eldest son of Lord Francis
- Harry Evelyn Terence Russell (b. 1999), second and youngest son of Lord Francis
- Mark Hugh Russell (b. 1960), only son of Lord Hugh Hastings Russell, second and youngest son of the 12th Duke
- Laurie Stewart Russell (b. 1990), only son of Mark Russell
- Baron Russell of Thornhaugh
- Baron de Clifford
- Earl Russell
- Earls of Orford; First creation (1697)
- Baron Ampthill
- Round, J.H. (1901) Studies in Peerage and Family History, A. Constable and Company, London.
- Debrett's Peerage, 1968, p.131
- "HERALDRY of the BEDFORD CHAPEL CHENIES". www.middlesex-heraldry.org.uk. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- Cracroft – Extinct dukedoms of England Archived 17 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. .
- Burke's Peerage & Baronetage
- Round, pp. 292–309
- Round, J. Horace (1999). "The Rozels of Bedford". The Baronage. The Baronage Press Ltd and Pegasus Associates Ltd. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
- "Family Tree of the Russells". The Woburn Estate. Woburn Enterprises. 2014. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
- "Google Groups". groups.google.com. Retrieved 10 April 2018.