Sucrol; Valzin; Dulcine
3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||180.207 g·mol−1|
|Melting point||173.5 °C (344.3 °F; 446.6 K)|
|1.25 g/l (25 °C)|
|Solubility||Soluble in alcohol|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (median dose)
|1900 mg/kg (rat, oral)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Dulcin is an artificial sweetener about 250 times sweeter than sugar, discovered in 1883 by the Polish chemist Józef (Joseph) Berlinerblau (27 August 1859 – 1935). It was first mass-produced about seven years later. Although it was discovered only five years after saccharin, it never enjoyed the latter compound's market success. Nevertheless, it was an important sweetener of the early 20th century and had an advantage over saccharin in that it did not possess a bitter aftertaste.
Early medical tests marked the substance as safe for human consumption, and it was considered ideal for diabetics. However, an FDA study in 1951 raised many questions about its safety, resulting in its removal from the market in 1954 after animal testing revealed harmful chronic-toxicitic properties. "15FR321 Title 21" (PDF). FDA fedral register. FDA. January 18, 1950. Retrieved January 11, 2021.
... Notice to manufacturers and distributors of foods and drugs containing artificial sweeteners. Chronic-toxicity studies conducted by the Food and Drug Administration show/ that the artificial sweeteners dulcin (also known as sucrol, or 4-ethoxy-phenylurea, or paraphenetolcarbamide) and P-4000 (also known as l-n-propoxy amino4-nitrobenzene) cause injury to rats when fed at relatively low levels for approximately 2 years ...' In Japan, poisoning accidents by dulcin occurred frequently, and use of dulcin was forbidden in 1969.
Dulcin is also known by the names sucrol and valzin.
- Berlinerblau, Joseph (1884). "Ueber die Einwirkung von Chlorcyan auf Ortho- und auf Para-Amidophenetol" [On the reaction of cyanogen chloride with ortho- and para-ethoxyaniline]. Journal für praktische Chemie. 2nd series (in German). 30: 97–115. doi:10.1002/prac.18840300110. ; see pp. 103–105. From p. 104: "Der Para-Aethoxyphenylharnstoff hat einen sehr süssen Geschmack." (Para-ethoxyphenylurea has a very sweet taste.)
- Hess, Ludwig (1921). Über den Süßstoff Dulcin: seine Darstellung und Eigenschaften [On the sweetener Dulcin: its preparation and properties] (in German) (2nd ed.). Berlin & Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Verlag. pp. 5–6. ISBN 9783642993923.
- Goldsmith, R.H. (1987). "A tale of two sweeteners". Journal of Chemical Education. 64 (11): 954–955. doi:10.1021/ed064p954.
- For a biography of Joseph Berlinerblau (with photographs), see:
- Balasiewicz, Michał S. (2013). "Józef Berlinerblau i Jan Prot-Berlinerblau – współtwórcy polskiego przemysłu Polski niepodległej" [Józef Berlinerblau and Jan Prot-Berlinerblau – co-founders of Polish industry in independent Poland [i.e., the Second Polish Republic (1918–1939)]]. Przemysł Chemiczny (Chemical Industry) (in Polish). 92 (9): 1692–1700.
- Reprinted in: "Józef Berlinerblau" in ewamaria2013 (2014) (in Polish)
- Reprinted in: "Josef Berlinerblau" in Reunion 69 (2014) (in Polish)
- ズルチン標準品-Dulcin Standard (Japanese), Wako Pure Chemical Industries
- Bender, David A. (2005). A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. Oxford University Press.
- Youssef, Khairia M.; Al-Abdullah, Ebtihal; El-Khamees, Hamad (2003). "Synthesis of sulofenur analogs as antitumour agents: Part II". Medicinal Chemistry Research. 11 (9): 481–503.
- "ARYLUREAS II. UREA METHOD p-ETHOXYPHENYLUREA". Org. Synth. 31 (11): 11. 1951. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.031.0011.
- Hodges, L. 1973. Environmental pollution: a survey emphasizing physical and chemical principles. Holt, Rinehart and Winston Inc., New York.
- Media related to Dulcin at Wikimedia Commons