Dumaguete

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Dumaguete
Component City
City of Dumaguete
Dumaguete City Hall
Dumaguete City Hall
Official seal of Dumaguete
Seal
Nickname(s): The City of Gentle People
Map of Negros Oriental with Dumaguete highlighted
Map of Negros Oriental with Dumaguete highlighted
Dumaguete is located in Philippines
Dumaguete
Dumaguete
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 9°18′37″N 123°18′29″E / 9.31028°N 123.30806°E / 9.31028; 123.30806Coordinates: 9°18′37″N 123°18′29″E / 9.31028°N 123.30806°E / 9.31028; 123.30806
Country  Philippines
Region Central Visayas (Region VII)
Province Negros Oriental
District 2nd district of Negros Oriental
Cityhood June 15, 1948
Barangays 30 (see Barangays)
Government[1]
 • Type Sangguniang Panlungsod
 • Mayor Felipe Antonio “Ipe” B. Remollo
 • Vice Mayor Franklin D. Esmeña Jr.
 • Electorate 80,122 voters (2016)
Area[2]
 • Total 33.62 km2 (12.98 sq mi)
Population (2015 census)[3]
 • Total 131,377
 • Density 3,900/km2 (10,000/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Dumagueteño (masculine)
Dumagueteña (feminine)
Time zone PST (UTC+8)
ZIP code 6200
PSGC 074610000
IDD:area code +63 (0)35
Climate type tropical climate
Income class 3rd city income class
Website www.dumaguetecity.gov.ph

Dumaguete /dməˈɡɛtɛ/, officially the City of Dumaguete, (Cebuano: Dakbayan sa Dumaguete; Hiligaynon: Dakbanwa/Syudad sang Dumaguete; Filipino: Lungsod ng Dumaguete), or simply as Dumaguete City, is a 3rd class city in the province of Negros Oriental, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 131,377 people.[3]

It is the capital and most populous city of the province of Negros Oriental. The city is nicknamed The City of Gentle People.[4]

Dumaguete is referred to as a university city because of the presence of four universities and a number of other colleges where students of the province converge to enroll for tertiary education. The city is also a popular educational destination for students of surrounding provinces and cities in Visayas and Mindanao. The city is best known for Silliman University, the country's first Protestant university and the first American university in Asia.[5][6] There are also 18 public elementary schools and 8 public high schools. The city's student population is estimated at 30,000.[4]

Dumaguete attracts a considerable number of foreign tourists, particularly Europeans, because of easy access from Cebu City in Central Visayas, the availability of beach resorts and dive sites, the attraction of dolphin and whale watching in nearby Bais City. Dumaguete is listed 5th in Forbes Magazine's "7 Best Places to Retire Around the World".[7][8]

The power source of the city comes from the geothermal power plant in Palinpinon, Valencia. The city has redundant fiber optic lines and is a focal point for telecommunications. It is the landing point for fiber optic cables linking it to the whole Visayas, Manila (the capital of the nation) and cities south of Luzon, as well as to other cities north of Mindanao.[9]

Etymology[edit]

"Dumaguete" was coined from the Cebuano word dagit, which means "to snatch". The word dumaguet, meaning "to swoop", was coined because of frequent raids by Moro pirates on this coastal community and its power to attract and keep visitors, both local and foreign. In 1572, Diego López Povedano indicated the place as Dananguet, but cartographer Pedro Murillo Velarde in 1734 already used present name of Dumaguete for the settlement.[10]

Geography and Climate[edit]

Rizal Boulevard

Dumaguete has a land area of 3,362 hectares (8,310 acres), situated on the plains of the southeastern coast of the large island of Negros, near the mouth of the Banica River. Of the province's 19 municipalities/towns and 6 cities, Dumaguete is the smallest in terms of land area. It is bounded on the north by the town of Sibulan, on the south by the town of Bacong and on the west by the town of Valencia.

As a coastal city, it is bounded on the east by the Bohol Sea and the Tañon Strait, serving as a natural border of southeastern Negros Island Region to the neighboring Central Visayas. The city's topography is generally flat from two to six kilometers from the shoreline. It slopes gently upwards to the adjoining municipality of Valencia. The highest ground elevation is located at the boundary of the municipality of Valencia, about one hundred meters above mean sea level. About 93% of the land have slopes of less than 3%. The remaining areas have 3% to 5% slope.

Climate[edit]

Dumaguete has two seasons, namely; the dry and the wet seasons. The wet season covers the period from June to November, and the dry season starts from December to May, the hottest being April and May. The average maximum temperature is 34.3 °C and the average minimum temperature is 22.9 °C for the past years. The relative humidity of the locality for the past years was 78¾% with the month of December registering the highest.

Climate data for Dumaguete
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 29.5
(85.1)
29.7
(85.5)
30.7
(87.3)
31.9
(89.4)
32.4
(90.3)
32.2
(90)
32.0
(89.6)
32.2
(90)
32.1
(89.8)
31.6
(88.9)
31.2
(88.2)
30.3
(86.5)
31.3
(88.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.6
(79.9)
26.7
(80.1)
27.5
(81.5)
28.5
(83.3)
28.7
(83.7)
28.2
(82.8)
27.9
(82.2)
28.0
(82.4)
27.9
(82.2)
27.7
(81.9)
27.3
(81.1)
27.2
(81)
27.7
(81.9)
Average low °C (°F) 23.8
(74.8)
23.8
(74.8)
24.3
(75.7)
25.1
(77.2)
25.1
(77.2)
24.3
(75.7)
23.8
(74.8)
23.8
(74.8)
23.8
(74.8)
23.9
(75)
24.1
(75.4)
24.1
(75.4)
24.5
(76.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 80.8
(3.181)
54.3
(2.138)
54.3
(2.138)
49.5
(1.949)
75.6
(2.976)
134.3
(5.287)
139.6
(5.496)
123.5
(4.862)
137.4
(5.409)
183.1
(7.209)
162.8
(6.409)
113.7
(4.476)
1,308.9
(51.531)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.10 mm) 13 10 8 6 8 15 14 14 15 17 15 16 151
Average relative humidity (%) 81 80 77 76 77 78 80 79 79 80 80 81 79
Source: PAGASA[11]

Barangays[edit]

Dumaguete is politically subdivided into 30 barangays, all classified as urban. The eight barangays in the city's downtown area are known primarily by number. The smallest barangay is Barangay 4 with an area of only 5.11 hectares, while the biggest barangay is Barangay Banilad with 362.71 hectares.

  • Bagacay
  • Bajumpandan
  • Balugo
  • Banilad
  • Bantayan
  • Barangay 1 (Tinago)
  • Barangay 2 (Upper Lukewright)
  • Barangay 3 (Business District)
  • Barangay 4 (Rizal Boulevard)
  • Barangay 5 (Silliman Area)
  • Barangay 6 (Cambagroy)
  • Barangay 7 (Mangga)
  • Barangay 8 (Cervantes Extension)
  • Batinguel
  • Buñao
  • Cadawinonan
  • Calindagan
  • Camanjac
  • Candau-ay
  • Cantil-e
  • Daro
  • Junob
  • Looc
  • Mangnao-Canal
  • Motong
  • Piapi
  • Pulantubig
  • Tabuc-tubig
  • Taclobo
  • Talay

Demographics[edit]

Population census of Dumaguete
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1903 14,894 —    
1918 16,336 +0.62%
1939 22,236 +1.48%
1948 24,838 +1.24%
1960 35,282 +2.97%
1970 52,000 +3.95%
1975 52,765 +0.29%
1980 63,411 +3.74%
1990 80,262 +2.39%
1995 92,637 +2.72%
2000 102,265 +2.14%
2007 116,392 +1.80%
2010 120,883 +1.39%
2015 131,377 +1.60%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[3][12][13][14]

As of the census in 2015, there are 131,377 people and 21,582 households residing in the city (as of 2010). The city has the least poverty incidence among urban centers in Visayas, according to the 2009 Small Area Estimates (SAE) of Poverty done by the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB). It has an average daylight population of 400,000 people. Dumaguete is the most populous city in Negros Oriental, comprising 9.05% of the province's total population. Its total voting population is 68,648 as of 2010.[15]

Education[edit]

Dumaguete is best known for Silliman University.[16]

Dumaguete has earned the distinction of being known as the "center of learning in the South," or a university city due to the presence of universities that have made their mark nationally and abroad. The city is a melting pot of students, professionals, artists, scholars and the literati coming from different parts of the country and the world.

Silliman University is the dominant institution of higher learning in Dumaguete, providing the city with a distinct university town atmosphere. It is the first Protestant university in the country and the first American university in Asia. The 610,000 m² campus is adjacent to and intermixed with the city's downtown district.[17] Some of its buildings have likewise been recognized as landmarks. These buildings include the Silliman Hall, Hibbard Hall, Katipunan Hall, the Luce Auditorium, and the Silliman Main Library (considered as one of the biggest libraries in the Philippines).[4][18][19][20]

Other universities within the urban paramaters of the city are: Foundation University (1949), a private non-sectarian university, its Main Campus where the site of a very popular Sofia Soller Sinco Hall dubbed as White House of Dumaguete is located at Meciano Road offers tertiary education programs while North Campus along Locsin Street is the home of Foundation Preparatory Academy for basic education programs. The Negros Oriental State University (NORSU) which was founded on 1907, has its two main campuses in the city, the Main Campus 1 is beside the Provincial Capitol building while Main Campus 2 is located in barangay Bajumpandan. It is the only state university in Negros Oriental, the biggest among the four universities in the city in terms of student population and is very popular among students from different towns and cities of the province and some other parts of the country. St. Paul University Dumaguete (1904) is the first Saint Paul educational institution to be established in the Philippines by the Sisters of Saint Paul of Chartres (SPC) from France and considered as premier Catholic university of Dumaguete City.

Economy[edit]

Tourism, the academe, the retail industries, BPO and technology-related activities are the major sources of income for the city. BPOs and IT firms, as well as retailing, are the fastest rising industries.

Hotels and tourism[edit]

La Residencia Almar Hotel
Hotel Essencia

Data from the Department of Tourism show that Dumaguete and Negros Oriental are among the top ten most visited tourist destinations in the country.[21] Tourists visit popular sites such as: the historic Rizal Boulevard aligned with some hotels, coffee shops, fine-dining restaurants and bars including the latest dining commercial complex, Paseo Perdices is the preferred location of Max's Restaurant, Yellow Cab Pizza and among others; Silliman Hall-home of University's Anthropology Museum; St. Catherine of Alexandria Cathedral being the oldest stone church of the island of Negros and ecclesiastical seat of the bishop of Roman Catholic Diocese of Dumaguete and Campanario de Dumaguete which is considered as one of the oldest heritage landmarks of Negros Island Region. Dumaguete serves as the main gateway to Negros Oriental.

The city comes alive every September by celebrating its Sandurot Festival, which means “fellowship and reaching out” is a commemoration of Dumaguete’s rich history dating back from the pre-Hispanic period when people of different foreign cultures converged and created a varied community that is Dumaguete City today. Through the course of history and to the present time, the people of Dumaguete have always been known to welcome strangers from different shores and countries, and to live with them in complete peace and understanding. The celebration started with the Paghimamat, a re-enactment of how people from different cultures and races came to the shores of Dumaguete, bringing gifts of rich cultures. Pasigarbo followed, gracing the City streets with dancing to drumbeats and other instruments participated by different barangays and schools in Dumaguete. The streetdancing ended at Quezon Park after which the participants prepared for the grand Pasundayag, a display of dances portraying different stories of the Dumaguete tradition.

Meanwhile, Buglasan Festival of festivals is celebrated annually in the province of Negros Oriental every October since 2002. The festival is a ten-day event held in the city of Dumaguete, a movable provincial fiesta, participated in by the Province's six cities and 19 municipalities. Though this is a province-wide event (sponsored by the provincial government), the activities are mostly centered in the province's capital, Dumaguete City. Majority of activities are held in the Provincial Capitol and Ninoy Aquino's Freedom Park with booths and local products either on display or for sale, it is also spread to other venues such as Sidlakan Negros Village at Brgy. Piapi and city's Rizal Boulevard. Showdowns and streetdancing activities happen every 3rd Friday of the month of October.

Business process outsourcing[edit]

A Tholons 100 outsourcing destination, Dumaguete's outsourcing industry has a wide and diversified range from call centers, publishing, medical transcription, animation, editing, and architectural outsourcing. With over 20 IT and BPO locators, Dumaguete City is becoming one of the most preferred Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) and Information Technology (IT) hubs of the Philippines.[22] These industries drive economic activity even at night time with the strong presence of 24-hour food-chains like Jollibee, McDonald's, Dunkin Donuts, Chowking, etc. and a considerable number of well-known convenience stores such as 7-Eleven and Ministop.

Some PEZA-accredited IT Parks and buildings located in the city are:

  • Dumaguete Business Park and IT Plaza in Brgy. Calindagan (TeleTech, SOPHI Inc., Ingenuiti, Applied Balance)
  • LP IT Park, Brgy. Bagacay (SPi Global – SPi Technologies and SPi Healthcare)
  • DCDB Building at Cervantes cor. Locsin Streets (StudentUniverse)
  • EROS Building at Locsin Street, Downtown area (Qualfon Site 1)
  • LinkSy IT Park in Brgy. Bantayan (Qualfon Site 2)
  • YY StarDAS IT Center, Brgy. Bagacay (SPi CRM Relia)

Retail[edit]

Major malls and shopping centers in Dumaguete include Cang's Inc. Shopping Complex and CityMall Dumaguete along national highway both located in Brgy. Daro; Lee Super Plaza[23] and Robinsons Townville Perdices in the downtown area; and the upcoming Festival Mall Dumaguete at Escaño Beach, Piapi (North Boulevard) as one of the major components of Filinvest township project called Marina Town Dumaguete. Robinsons Place Dumaguete, the first full-service mall in the city is about 02 km (1.2 mi) from the city center heading to the south.

Employment[edit]

Due to the booming BPO industry in Dumaguete, many jobs were created and many of the citizens of Dumaguete, as well as neighboring towns, are hired.[24] There is also a free job website named Dumjobs that offers free job posting for Dumaguete City and Negros Oriental employers.[25]

Health care and services[edit]

Dumaguete has three major tertiary hospitals, namely the Holy Child Hospital, Negros Oriental Provincial Hospital, and the Silliman Medical Center which is currently associated with St. Luke's Medical Center in Metro Manila[26] and considered one of the best hospitals outside Metro Manila and Metro Cebu. Under proposal is a medical resort with a 100-bed tertiary hospital, and which will cater primarily to the retirement market from North American, European and East Asian countries. Also being constructed is ACE Dumaguete Doctors Hospital, an eight storeys, 200-bed hospital near the downtown area. Dumaguete City is one of the five areas identified by the Philippine government as retirement hubs.[citation needed]

Transportation[edit]

Air[edit]

The Port of Dumaguete
A tricycle in Dumaguete, one of the primary modes of public transport in the city.

Sibulan Airport (IATA: DGT, ICAO: RPVD), also known as Dumaguete Airport or Dumaguete-Sibulan Airport, is the city's domestic airport located in neighboring Sibulan town in the north. It provides daily flights to and from Manila and Cebu City through Cebu Pacific, Cebgo and PAL Express while Cebgo is servicing both Mindanao important urban centers, thrice weekly flights to Davao City and Cagayan de Oro City.[27] However, a new airport is being planned to be built in Bacong, a town bordering Dumaguete in the south[28] The proposal for the transfer and upgrading of this airport to international standards has already been approved and should be completed before 2025. An initial PHP 500 million budget has already been released for initial study and procurement of free lands.[29]

Sea[edit]

Dumaguete, as a major port city is a jump-off point for passengers/tourists who are going to other Visayas and Mindanao areas. There are daily ferry connections to the islands of Cebu, Bohol, Siquijor and Mindanao operated by Archipelago Philippine Ferries Corporation (Fast Cat), Montenegro Lines, Ocean Jet Shipping, Cokaliong and other companies. Dumaguete is an access city for passengers/tourists going to Cebu which is dubbed as economic hub of the Visayas. There are smaller ports north of the city where short and frequent ferry connections are available to that island as an alternative. Dumaguete is a port of call for travelers to Manila and Zamboanga City by ship serviced by 2GO Travel.

Land[edit]

The main form of public transport in Dumaguete is the motorized tricycle. The Dumaguete version of the motorized tricycle can fit up to 6-8 passengers. For transport to destinations outside the city limit, there are jeepney and buses travelling set routes. Meanwhile, Vallacar Transit Corporation, the company that operates Ceres buses recently constructed a 2-storey terminal building in Dumaguete just beside the newly erected commercial center, the Marketplace.[citation needed]

Notable residents[edit]

The following people are notable residents, past and present, from Dumaguete City:


Architecture and Allied Arts[edit]

  • Manuel Almagro, architect[30]
  • Rene Armogenia, architect[31]
  • Efren Padilla, urban designer[32]
  • Dean Sinco, architect[33]

Business[edit]

  • Mary Davis Amigo†, businesswoman
  • Ang Tay†, businessman
  • Chuang Tek Huy†, businessman
  • Don Miguel Diaz†, businessman
  • Tansieng Dy†, businessman
  • Ramon V. Escaño†, businessman
  • Don Felix Montenegro†, businessman
  • Don Joaquin Montenegro†, businessman
  • Avelino A. Quiamco Sr.†, businessman
  • Julio O. Sy, businessman[34] (?)
  • Julio Sy Jr., businessman (?)
  • Daniel Z. SyCip, businessman
  • Mariano Larena Uymatiao†, businessman
  • Olivia Yanson, businesswoman and founder of Ceres Liner[35]

Cinema[edit]

Culinary Arts[edit]

Dance[edit]

  • Mariant Escaño-Villegas, founder of MEV Dance Company
  • Lucy Jumawan, founder of Silliman University Dance Troupe

Education[edit]

  • Justice Venancio Aldecoa Jr., Silliman University President[49]
  • Leonor Briones, Secretary of the Department of Education and former Treasurer of the Philippines[50][51]
  • Betty Cernol-McCann, former UBCHEA Executive Director and incoming Silliman University President[52]
  • David Sutherland Hibbard†, founder of Silliman University
  • Laura Hibbard†, founder of Silliman University
  • Abby Jacobs†, educator
  • Ben S. Malayang III, Silliman University President
  • Metta Jacobs Silliman†, educator
  • Robert Silliman†, educator
  • Vicente Sinco†, founder of Foundation University

Fashion[edit]

Literary Arts[edit]

  • Merlie Alunan, poet and Carlos Palanca Memorial Award winner[55]
  • César Ruìz Aquino, poet, fictionist, and four-time Carlos Palanca Memorial Award winner[56]
  • Ian Casocot, fictionist and five-time Carlos Palanca Memorial Award winner[57]
  • Claro Ceniza†, poet and philosopher[58]
  • Earl Jude Cleope, historian[59]
  • Elsa Martinez Coscolluela, poet, fictionist, playwright and Carlos Palanca Memorial Award Hall-of-Famer[60]
  • Leoncio P. Deriada, poet, fictionist, playwright and Carlos Palanca Memorial Award Hall-of-Famer[61]
  • Christine Godinez-Ortega, poet[62]
  • Leonilda Bayran Magdamo, poet
  • Elena Maquiso†, historian and Ulahingan researcher[63]
  • David C. Martinez, fictionist and Carlos Palanca Memorial Award winner[64]
  • Grace Monte de Ramos, poet[65]
  • Jose V. Montebon†, fictionist
  • Myrna Peña-Reyes, poet[66]
  • Caridad Aldecoa Rodriguez†, historian[67]
  • Lakambini Sitoy, fictionist and Carlos Palanca Memorial Award winner[68]
  • T. Valentino Sitoy, historian[69]
  • Artemio Tadena†, poet and Carlos Palanca Memorial Award winner[70]
  • Anthony L. Tan, poet, fictionist, and Carlos Palanca Memorial Award winner[71]
  • Edilberto Tiempo†, writer[72]
  • Edith Tiempo†, writer and National Artist for Literature[73]
  • Rowena Tiempo Torrevillas, poet, fictionist, essayist, and Carlos Palanca Memorial Award winner[74]
  • Ernesto Superal Yee†, poet and fictionist[75]
  • Bobby Flores Villasis, poet, fictionist, playwright, and Carlos Palanca Memorial Award winner[76]

Music[edit]

  • Diomar Abrio, music educator
  • Joseph Basa, band conductor
  • Constantino Bernardez, classical singer
  • Boboy Garovillo, singer and member of APO Hiking Society
  • Emmanuel Gregorio, classical singer
  • Priscilla Magdamo-Abraham, ethnomusicologist[77]
  • Elmo Makil†, tenor and music educator[78]
  • James Palmore†, music educator
  • Miriam G. Palmore†, music educator
  • Ruth Imperial Pfeiffer, pianist
  • William Pfeiffer†, music educator and researcher
  • Isabel Dimaya Vista, pianist, conductor, and music educator
  • Elizabeth Susan Vista-Suarez, pianist, conductor, and music educator[79]
  • Zoe R. Lopez, violinist and composer
  • Herbert Timtim, singer and founder of Enchi
  • Earnest Hope Tinambacan, actor, director, singer, and founder of HOPIA and The Belltower Project
  • Gamaliel Viray, classical singer

Politics[edit]

  • Lazaro J. Alfabeto†, provincial treasurer
  • Juanita Amatong, former Secretary of the Department of Finance[80]
  • MacArthur Corsino, Philippine Ambassador
  • Demetrio Larena, provincial governor
  • Jocelyn Limkaichong, congresswoman (?)
  • Maria Luisa Locsin†, city councilor and Sibulan mayor
  • Lamberto L. Macias†, congressman
  • Emilio C. Macias II, provincial governor
  • Mariano A. Perdices†, city mayor and provincial governor
  • José E. Romero†, Philippine Ambassador to the Court of St. James
  • Jose Pro Teves†, longest-serving city mayor
  • Lorenzo Teves†, senator
  • Margarito Teves, congressman and former Secretary of the Department of Finance[81]
  • Don Serafin L. Teves†, provincial governor

Religion[edit]

  • Julito Buhisan Cortes, D.D. , Bishop of Dumaguete
  • Antonio Fortich, Catholic bishop and social activist[82]
  • Proceso Udarbe†, pastor and author[83]

Sciences[edit]

Sports[edit]

Theatre Arts[edit]

  • Evelyn Aldecoa†, actor, director, and founder of Twilight Theatre[88]
  • Ephraim Bejar†, director
  • Anna del Prado, actor
  • Lu Decenteceo, actor
  • Frank Flores, director and founder of Portal Players
  • Junix Inocian†, actor[89]
  • Amiel Y. Leonardia, actor and director
  • Frances Makil-Ignacio, actor[90]
  • Paul Palmore, actor and director[91]
  • Dessa Quesada-Palm, director, actor, and founder of Youth Advocates Through Theatre Arts[92]

Visual Arts[edit]

  • Kristoffer Ardeña, painter[93]
  • Edmund Bendijo, painter[94]
  • Hersley Ven Casero, painter and photographer[95]
  • Sharon Dadang-Rafols, painter
  • Albert Faurot†, art educator
  • W Don Flores, painter
  • Jana Jumalon-Alano, painter and sculptor
  • Jose Laspiñas†, painter
  • Paul Pfeiffer, multimedia artist[96]
  • Jutze Pamate, painter
  • Kennedy Rubias†, painter
  • Razcel Jan Luiz Salvarita, painter, performance artist, filmmaker, and photographer[97]
  • Danni Sollesta, painter and sculptor
  • Cristina Taniguchi, painter and sculptor[98]
  • Maria Taniguchi, painter[99]
  • Mark Valenzuela, painter[100]
  • Babbu Wenceslao, painter[101]

Sister cities[edit]

Dumaguete has the following sister cities:

Local[edit]

International[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "City". Quezon City, Philippines: Department of the Interior and Local Government. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  2. ^ "Province:". PSGC Interactive. Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 12 November 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c Census of Population (2015). "Region VII (Central Visayas)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved 20 June 2016. 
  4. ^ a b c "Dumaguete City, the City of Gentle People". Department of Tourism. Retrieved 2010-11-04.
  5. ^ "CSF program up in Dumaguete" Archived 2009-07-19 at the Wayback Machine.. Manila Bulletin. By Atty. Ignacio Bunye. Posted July 5, 2009. Accessed October 14, 2009.
  6. ^ "Heritage Diary of Negros Oriental". Inquirer.net. By: Dexter Matilla. Posted July 14, 2008. Accessed October 15, 2009.
  7. ^ Dumaguete among 7 best places to retire, according to Forbes Magazine. GMA Network. November 15, 2014.
  8. ^ No. 5: Dumaguete, Philippines (The 7 Best Places To Retire Around The World). Forbes. 2014.
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-09-26. Retrieved 2010-08-12.  NegrosHub.com - Dumaguete City
  10. ^ experiencephilippines.org
  11. ^ "Climatological Normals of the Philippines (1951-1985) (PAGASA 1987)" (PDF). PAGASA. Retrieved 18 April 2016. 
  12. ^ Census of Population and Housing (2010). "Region VII (Central Visayas)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016. 
  13. ^ Census of Population (1995, 2000 and 2007). "Region VII (Central Visayas)". Total Population by Province, City and Municipality. NSO. Archived from the original on 24 June 2011. 
  14. ^ "Province of". Municipality Population Data. Local Water Utilities Administration Research Division. Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  15. ^ Dumaguete City statistics as of 2010.
  16. ^ "Dumaguete, Negros Oriental". Philippine Airlines. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
  17. ^ UP is No.1 based on PRC exams Archived February 7, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.. UP Newsletter, Vol. XXVIII, No. 09. September 01, 2007. Accessed May 26, 2009.
  18. ^ Philippine Travel Center: Negros Oriental. Accessed September 1, 2009.
  19. ^ Negros Chronicle. Where to go in Negros Oriental. Accessed September 1, 2009.
  20. ^ WOWPhilippines: Things to do and see in Negros Oriental. Accessed September 1, 2009.
  21. ^ Top Tourist Destinations in the Philippines Archived September 9, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
  22. ^ Baguio, Dumaguete now in top 10 BPO Next Wave Cities
  23. ^ "Lee Plaza Shopping". Lee Plaza Shopping. Retrieved 2017-02-16. 
  24. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2015-03-29. 
  25. ^ http://dumjobs.com/
  26. ^ "St. Luke's inks MOA with Silliman Medical Center". Philstar.com. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
  27. ^ "CEB adds 2nd daily frequency to Manila-Dumaguete " Archived June 18, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.. Cebu Pacific. Retrieved 2010-11-04.
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