Dumka

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Dumka
Massanjore dam, Santhal pargana dumka, Jharkhand.jpg
IMG massanjore dam dumka.jpg
Dumka Railway Station View from Over Bridge.jpg
Terracotta Temples at Maluti 03.jpg
Dumka Railway Station, Massanjore Dam, Maluti and Massanjore
Dumka is located in Jharkhand
Dumka
Dumka
Location in Jharkhand, India
Dumka is located in India
Dumka
Dumka
Dumka (India)
Coordinates: 24°16′N 87°15′E / 24.27°N 87.25°E / 24.27; 87.25Coordinates: 24°16′N 87°15′E / 24.27°N 87.25°E / 24.27; 87.25
Country India
StateJharkhand
DistrictDumka
RegionRarh region
Government
 • TypeMunicipality
 • Member of Parliament, Lok SabhaSunil Soren (BJP)
 • Member of Legislative Assembly, JharkhandBasant Soren (JMM)
Area
 • Total4,404.02 km2 (1,700.40 sq mi)
Elevation
137 m (449 ft)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total47,584
 • Density300/km2 (800/sq mi)
Languages (*For language details see Dumka (community development block)#Language and religion)
 • OfficialHindi, Urdu
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
814101
Telephone code06434
Vehicle registrationJH-04
Sex ratio974 /
Websitedumka.nic.in

Dumka, the headquarters of the Dumka district and Santhal Pargana region, is a city in the state of Jharkhand, India. It was made the headquarters of the Santhal Pargana region, which was carved out of the Bhagalpur and Birbhum district after the Santal Hool of 1855. Dumka was carved out of the southern part of Bihar along with 18 other Districts on 15 November 2000 to form Jharkhand as 28th State of India. Dumka is a peaceful and green city and also sub-capital of Jharkhand. The nearest important cities are Rampurhat and Deoghar.

Etymology[edit]

There are two theories on how Dumka got its name. The first one suggests that Dumka's name derives from the Santali word sumk for "shunted" or "small," because during the British Raj, it was a small town compared to Rampurhat and Bhagalpur .

The other is that Dumka derives its name from the Persian word damin-i-koh, which means 'skirts (an edge, border or extreme part) of the hills'.

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

The earlier inhabitants of the present-day district of whom there is some record, it appears, were the Paharias (for example, the Maler and Sauria Paharias). The Greek traveler Megasthenes identified these people as Mallis. He referred to the Sauria Paharias as savars[what language is this?] of Odisha. Medieval History: Due to inaccessibility of the area caused by the cliffs of the Rajmahal Hills, it was a place of strategic economic importance, with a fort at Teliagarhi. After the 1539 victory of Sher Shah Suri at Chousa, the area fell into the hands of the Afghans, but it was soon lost to the Mughals under Akbar when Hussain Quli Khan was made viceroy of Bengal.

British Raj[edit]

The English representative, Dr. Gabriel Bokgliton, procured a farman from Shah Jahan.

1742-1751: The area of Dumka close to Rajmahal witnessed frequent inroads by the Marathas under Raghoji Bhosle and Peshwa Balaji Rao.

1745: Raghoji Bhosle entered Rajmahal via the hills and jungles of Santal Pargana. The early stay of the English was spent in subduing the Paharias.

1769: Dumka remained a Ghatwali police post under Birbhum District of Bengal.

1775: Dumka was transferred to Bhagalpur Division.

1865: Dumka was made an independent district after being carved out of Bhagalpur.

1872: Dumka was made headquarters of the whole district of Santal Pargana.

1889: Paul Olaf Bodding started his service in India (Dumka/Benagaria) after Lars Olsen Skrefsrud, and Bodding created the first alphabet for the Santhals. The NELC-church was created as a Lutheran Church in this area - before the Catholics had established a mission in this area at all.

1902: The first municipality was established.

1920: Motor cars and buses were introduced.

After Independence[edit]

1952: The Apostolic Prefecture of Malda was erected. In 1962, it was promoted to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Dumka.

1983: Dumka was made the divisional headquarters of Santhal Pargana.

2000: Dumka became the sub-capital of Jharkhand.

2011: Dumka is connected with the newly built Jasidih-Dumka railway line.

2012: Intercity express to Ranchi started via Jasidih.

2017: Jharkhand opens pilot training center in Dumka.

2018: Four-lane road from Dudhani to Tata Showroom constructed.

Geography[edit]

Cities, towns and locations in the Deoghar, Dumka and Jamtara districts in Santhal Pargana Division
M: Municipality, CT: census town, R: Rural/ Urban centre, D: Dam,
Owing to space constraints in the small map, the actual locations in a larger map may vary slightly

Location[edit]

Dumka is located at 24°16′N 87°15′E / 24.27°N 87.25°E / 24.27; 87.25.[1] It has an average elevation of 137 metres (449 feet).

Physiography[edit]

Dumka has a predominantly undulating terrain with hard rocks under the ground. The entire district has a topography with high ridges and valleys bounded by mountains and rivers. The soil fertility is poor due to extensive erosion, acidity and low retaining capacity.

Climate[edit]

Dumka has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cwa), with warm, wet summers and mild winters.

Climate data for Dumka
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33.3
(91.9)
35.6
(96.1)
42.8
(109.0)
46.3
(115.3)
48.3
(118.9)
45.2
(113.4)
41.5
(106.7)
38.6
(101.5)
38.1
(100.6)
37.6
(99.7)
35.8
(96.4)
31.2
(88.2)
48.3
(118.9)
Average high °C (°F) 25.9
(78.6)
28.9
(84.0)
34.3
(93.7)
38.4
(101.1)
37.5
(99.5)
35.5
(95.9)
32.7
(90.9)
32.5
(90.5)
32.9
(91.2)
33.0
(91.4)
30.5
(86.9)
27.0
(80.6)
32.4
(90.4)
Average low °C (°F) 10.2
(50.4)
13.2
(55.8)
17.4
(63.3)
22.3
(72.1)
23.9
(75.0)
24.7
(76.5)
24.1
(75.4)
23.7
(74.7)
23.6
(74.5)
21.0
(69.8)
16.0
(60.8)
11.1
(52.0)
19.3
(66.7)
Record low °C (°F) 1.7
(35.1)
1.8
(35.2)
5.8
(42.4)
13.8
(56.8)
14.5
(58.1)
17.8
(64.0)
13.4
(56.1)
16.8
(62.2)
13.8
(56.8)
11.8
(53.2)
4.8
(40.6)
2.8
(37.0)
1.7
(35.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 9.0
(0.35)
15.0
(0.59)
21.0
(0.83)
35.0
(1.38)
72.0
(2.83)
198.0
(7.80)
343.0
(13.50)
293.0
(11.54)
273.0
(10.75)
116.0
(4.57)
9.0
(0.35)
7.0
(0.28)
1,391
(54.77)
Average rainy days 1.5 2.3 2.2 2.8 6.3 11.3 18.9 16.9 14.1 5.7 1.1 0.8 83.9
Average relative humidity (%) 60 53 47 50 60 73 83 83 81 74 65 62 66
Source: NOAA (1971-1990)[2]

Population[edit]

Population of Dumka 
CensusPopulation
19115,629
19217,39631.4%
19319,47128.1%
194110,81114.1%
195113,58225.6%
196118,72037.8%
197123,33824.7%
198131,06833.1%
199138,09622.6%
200144,98918.1%
201147,5845.8%
Source:[3]


Demographics[edit]

As of 2011 India census,[4] Dumka is a Nagar Parishad city in district of Dumka, Jharkhand. The Dumka city is divided into 23 wards for which elections are held every five years. The Dumka Nagar Parishad has population of 47,584 of which 25,364 are males while 22,220 are females as per report released by Census India 2011.

Population of children with age of 0-6 is 5371 which is 11.29% of total population of Dumka (Nagar Parishad). In Dumka Nagar Parishad, Female Sex Ratio is of 876 against state average of 948. Moreover, Child Sex Ratio in Dumka is around 891 compared to Jharkhand state average of 948. Literacy rate of Dumka city is 89.92% higher than state average of 66.41%. In Dumka, Male literacy is around 93.46% while female literacy rate is 85.87%.

Religion and Languages[edit]

Religion in Dumka (2011)
Religion Percent
Hinduism
88.25%
Islam
8.46%
Christianity
2.70%
Jainism
0.04%
Others†
0.14%
Distribution of religions
Includes Sikhism (0.06%), Buddhism (0.08%).

The Catholic minority is served by its own Roman Catholic Diocese of Dumka. Besides the official language Hindi, Urdu, Santali and Bengali are important. Here the major religions are:

Economy[edit]

Industrial areas
Sl. No. Name of Industrial Area Land acquired (in hectares) Land developed (in hectares) Prevailing Rate Per sq. ft. (in Rs) No. of plots No. of allotted

plots

No. of vacant plots No.of units in production
1. Industrial Area Dumka 6.088 6.088 19.00 13 13 03 10
Industry at a Glance
Sl. No. Head    Unit Particulars
1 Registered Industrial Unit No. 2241
2 Total Industrial Unit No. 2241
3 Registered Medium &Large Unit No. NIL
4 Estimated Avg. No. of daily Worker Employed in small scale industries No. 38
5 Employment in large and medium Industries No. NIL
6 No of Industrial Area No. 1

Shopping Malls[edit]

There are six Shopping Malls in Dumka.

  • V-Mart: This is the first mall to be opened in Dumka and this is situated near Veer Kuwar Singh Chowk, Dumka.
  • M-Baazar: This is situated below Hotel Suvidha, near Marwari Chowk.
  • 1-India Family Mart: This is situated in Thana Road, Dumka.
  • Bazaar India: This is situated in Bhagalpur Road, Dumka just beside Punjab National Bank.
  • V2: This is situated just opposite to 1-India Family Mart in Thana road, Dumka.
  • Reliance Trends: This is a mall in Dumka district which was opened on 5 August 2019. This is situated in Jail Road, Dumka, opposite to Mary filling station.

Culture[edit]

Dumka District contains many Hindu temples, such as Basukinath, Sirshanath, Maluti Mandir, Shiv Pahar and Dharamsthana. Crowds visit these places during the month of Sawan.[citation needed] Hizla Mela (Fair)[5] is organized every year in Hizla and continues for a week. It is a fair of great cultural importance, thousands of people visit during the fair.

Politics[edit]

The first Chief Minister of Jharkhand, Babulal Marandi, hailed from Dumka constituency. In 2000, when Jharkhand was carved out of Bihar, NDA came to power in Jharkhand with Marandi as the Chief Minister.

Shibu Soren is another politician associated with Dumka. He also has a temporary residence in Dumka.

In 2014, state election BJP coalition got majority in Assembly and Raghubar Das become the Chief Minister of Jharkhand, another politician associated with Jamsedhpur.

Education[edit]

There are various Higher Secondary schools in Dumka:

  • Sido Kanhu High School[6]
  • +2 Zila School
  • National School
  • Govt. Girls School
  • Dumka Central School

Some reputed schools which provide secondary level education are:

  • North Valley International School,[7]
  • St. Joseph's High School
  • Bal Bharti School

Other schools include Ananda Marg School (Kurwa), Modern Sainik School, Green Mount Academy and New Life Academy at Kathikund.

For higher education Dumka offers many colleges e.g.- Sido Kanhu Murmu University was established in 1992 at Dumka and covers whole Santhal Pargana. Many colleges are affiliated or constituent to SKMU in the division.

St. Xavier's College, Dumka offers various courses. Others include Santhal Pargana College (S.P. college),[8] A.N. College,[9] and S.P. Mahila College, which offer undergraduate, graduate and post-graduate courses.

Phulo-Jhano Murmu College of Dairy Technology at Hansdiha, Dumka is Jharkhand's first Dairy Technology college established in 2019.[10] It is affiliated by Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi.

GTRTC, Dumka (Government Tool Room and Training Centre) was established in 2007 by the Department of Industries, Government of Jharkahnd with the assistance of Ministry of MSME, Government of India.[11] It offers various training programmes to meet need for technical manpower required in the manufacturing sector. Lahanti Institute of Multiple Skills was established by Evangelical Social Action Forum to provide skills training to unemployed youth in the remote regions of Santhal Pargana.[12] Dumka also have a Govt. Polytechnic College, a Govt. Women's Polytechnic College and also a govt. ITI for technical education.

Dumka Engineering College was established as an institution under PPP model between the Government of Jharkhand and Techno India Group.[13]

Phulo Jhano Murmu Medical College and Hospital was established in 2019 and it also contains hospitals for serving population of Dumka.[14]

Tourist places[edit]

Temples[edit]

Tourist spots[edit]

  • Masanjore is a picnic spot situated 30 km to Dumka. This small village is about 30 km south of Dumka. The Masanjore dam on the Mayurakshi River is a tourist draw.[15] From the counterpart rupee fund created through supplies of wheat and other materials from Canada for use in India, Canada Govt. devoted those funds to further development of the Mayurakshi project and Massanjore Dam was commissioned in 1955. The Dam is still mentioned as Canada Dam. The dam is bounded by hills and forests. Mayurakshi Bhawan Bungalow and Inspection Bungalow, offer accommodation within the village.[16] By road, Masanjore is connected with Vakreshwara (59 km), Sainthia (50 km), Tarapith (70 km), Rampurhat (62 km) and Deoghar (98 km).
  • Chutonath - It is situated 20 km from the district headquarters. Chutonath is a religious place of Hindu god Lord Chutonath. This festival is celebrated mainly in the month of April. This area has become a tourist attraction.[17]
  • Dharmasthan - It is temple situated in Tin bazaar at the heart of Dumka Town, it is known for the Goddess Kali, during the Durga puja 7 days special puja is organised here.

Natural places[edit]

  • Kurwa park (Shrishti Pahar) - It is a small picnic spot about 5 km to the east of Dumka. It has a park, facilities for boating and a small hill. A temple is also situated here.

Transport[edit]

Rail[edit]

In July 2011, Dumka was connected to Jasidih with the newly built Jasidih - Dumka railway line. Since then, the city has seen a growing number of three-wheelers on the road. in June 2015, Dumka Rampurhat Train service is also started.

Road[edit]

Dumka is connected by road to the neighboring cities such as Deoghar, Bhagalpur, Dhanbad, Rampurhat. Buses are the preferred mode of transport and are run by both government agencies and private operators. Dumka has good connectivity to neighboring districts with buses. There is a luxury night bus service between Dumka - Ranchi and Kolkata.[18]

Air[edit]

Nearby airports are:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Dumka
  2. ^ "Dumka Climate Normals 1971-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  3. ^ "District Census Handbook Dumka, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Section II Town Directory, Statement I: Status and Growth History, Pages 705-706. Directorate of Census Operations, Jharkhand. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  4. ^ "Dumka Population Census 2011". Census Commission of India. Retrieved 20 July 2017.
  5. ^ https://dumka.nic.in/event/hizla_mela/
  6. ^ http://sidokanhuhighschool.com/
  7. ^ "North Valley International School". www.northvalleyinternationalschool.com. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  8. ^ https://www.spcollegedumka.com/
  9. ^ http://ancdumka.org/
  10. ^ "Guv to inaugurate Phulo-Jhano Dairy Technology College on August 19 - Reporter Post". reporterpost.in. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  11. ^ "GTRTC Dumka". www.gtrtcdumka.com. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  12. ^ Pioneer, The. "Skilling the remote part of India". The Pioneer. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  13. ^ "Dumka Engineering College". www.dumkaengg.edu.in. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  14. ^ "300 MBBS seats added in Jharkhand as SC gives nod to 3 new medical colleges". Hindustan Times. 21 August 2019. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  15. ^ "District Dumka, Government of Jharkhand | The Land of Temples | India". Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  16. ^ "Accommodation(Hotel/Resort/Dharamsala) | District Dumka, Government of Jharkhand | India". Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  17. ^ "Tourist Places | District Dumka, Government of Jharkhand | India". Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  18. ^ "District Dumka, Government of Jharkhand | The Land of Temples | India". Retrieved 30 December 2020.

Further reading[edit]

  • Verma, K. K., Alvi, N. M., Lal, B. B., & India. (1981). Special survey reports on selected towns: Series 4. Delhi: Controller of Publications.

External links[edit]