Dunedin (New Zealand electorate)

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Dunedin or the City of Dunedin or the Town of Dunedin was a parliamentary electorate in the city of Dunedin in Otago, New Zealand. It was one of the original electorates created in 1853 and existed, with two breaks, until 1905. It was the only New Zealand electorate that was created as a single-member, two-member and three member electorate.

Population centres[edit]

In December 1887, the House of Representatives voted to reduce its membership from general electorates from 91 to 70. The 1890 electoral redistribution used the same 1886 census data used for the 1887 electoral redistribution. In addition, three-member electorates were introduced in the four main centres. This resulted in a major restructuring of electorates, and Dunedin was one of eight electorates to be re-created for the 1890 election.[1]

History[edit]

From 1853 to 1860, the electorate was known as the Town of Dunedin. From 1860 to 1905, it was the City of Dunedin.[2]

James Macandrew was the first elected member. He resigned on 2 November 1858 and was re-elected in a 14 January 1859 by-election.[3][4]

Elections for the first two-member electorate were held on 24 December 1860. Three people contested the poll, with Thomas Dick and Edward McGlashan returned.[5]

In 1863, the electorate was abolished and replaced with Dunedin and Suburbs North and Dunedin and Suburbs South. It was recreated for the 1866 general election.

The 1875 election was contested by eight candidates. The three candidates on the anti-centralist ticket, James Macandrew, William Larnach and Robert Stout, were all successful. They beat William Reynolds, James Macassey[6] Henry Fish, James Grant and John Armstrong.[7]

Larnach resigned on 31 May 1878.[8]

The 1893 election was contested by eight candidates, who contested three available positions. William Hutchison and David Pinkerton were incumbents who were successful, William Earnshaw was the third successful candidate (he had represented the Peninsula electorate in the previous Parliament), the previous representative Henry Fish came fourth, Hugh Gourley was fifth, with other unsuccessful candidates being James Gore, Charles Haynes, and David Nicol.[9]

Members of Parliament[edit]

The multi-member electorate was represented by 23 Members of Parliament:

Single-member electorate[edit]

From 1853 to 1860, Town of Dunedin was a single-member electorate.

Election Winner
1853 election James Macandrew
1855 election
1859 by-election James Macandrew

Two-member electorate[edit]

From 1860 to 1863, and 1866 to 1875 City of Dunedin was a two-member electorate. Under the Representation Act 1862[10] the City of Dunedin electorate was abolished, with two new electorates, Dunedin and Suburbs North and Dunedin and Suburbs South replacing it, with elections being held on 28 March to 6 April 1863 respectively. All electorates before and after changes returned two members, with each of the previous incumbents in City of Dunedin being assigned an incumbency in one of the Dunedin Suburbs electorates, although Thomas Dick resigned before taking up his entitlement in Dunedin and Suburbs North, forcing the 1863 by-election.

Election Winners
1860 election Thomas Dick Edward McGlashan[11][12]
1st 1862 by-election Thomas Dick
2nd 1862 by-election John Richardson
3rd 1862 by-election James Paterson
Electorate abolished 1866 see Dunedin and Suburbs North and Dunedin and Suburbs South)
1866 election William Reynolds James Paterson
1867 by-election William Reynolds
1869 by-election Thomas Birch[13]
1871 election John Bathgate
1874 by-election Nathaniel Wales

Three-member electorate[edit]

From 1875 to 1881, and 1890 to 1905 City of Dunedin was a three-member electorate.

Key:

 Independent    Liberal    Conservative    Liberal-Labour    Independent Liberal  

Election Winners
1875 election James Macandrew William Larnach Robert Stout[14]
1878 by-election Richard Oliver
1879 by-election William Stewart
1879 election Thomas Dick
(Electorate abolished 1881–1890, see Dunedin Central, Dunedin East and Dunedin West)
1890 election William Hutchison David Pinkerton Henry Fish
1893 election William Earnshaw
1896 election Scobie Mackenzie John A. Millar Henry Fish
1897 by-election Alexander Sligo
1899 election James Arnold Alfred Barclay
1902 election Harry Bedford
(Electorate abolished 1905)

Election results[edit]

1899 election[edit]

General election, 1899: Dunedin[15][16]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal-Labour John A. Millar 9,045 61.70 +14.78
Liberal-Labour James Frederick Arnold 8,290 56.55
Liberal Alfred Richard Barclay 7,363 50.23
Conservative Scobie Mackenzie 6,726 45.88 -12.96
Conservative Alexander Sligo 6,415 43.76
Conservative Charles Haynes 4,919 33.55
Liberal Charles Robert Chapman 1,222 8.34
Majority 637 4.35 +1.50
Turnout 14,660 72.99 +1.99
Registered electors 20,084

1897 by-election[edit]

City of Dunedin by-election, 1897[17]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Alexander Sligo 5,045 45.29
Liberal Hugh Gourley 4,065 36.49
Independent Liberal William Hutchison 2,030 18.22
Informal votes 55
Majority 980
Turnout 11,140 75.59
Registered electors 14,811

1896 election[edit]

General election, 1896: Dunedin[18][19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Scobie Mackenzie 7,821 58.84
Liberal-Labour John A. Millar 6,236 46.92
Conservative Henry Fish 6,067 45.64 -1.87
Liberal David Pinkerton 5,689 42.80 -15.94
Liberal William Hutchison 4,983 37.49 -12.57
Conservative Alexander Campbell Begg[20] 4,409 33.17
Liberal-Labour William Earnshaw 2,421 18.21 -34.41
Conservative James Gore 1,299 9.77 -22.57
Independent Alfred Henry Burton 274 2.06
Conservative Murray Aston 272 2.05
Independent Frederick Marler Lester 209 1.57
Independent David Nicol 196 1.47 -2.06
Majority 378[nb 1] 2.84 0.29
Turnout 13,292 71.01 2.94
Registered electors 18,719[21]

Table footnotes:

  1. ^ Majority is difference between lowest winning poll (Fish - 6,067) and highest losing poll (Pinkerton - 5,689)

1893 election[edit]

General election, 1893: Dunedin[22][23]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal-Labour David Pinkerton 6,771 58.74 -4.88
Liberal-Labour William Earnshaw 6,066 52.62
Liberal William Hutchison 5,771 50.06 -6.10
Conservative Henry Fish 5,477 47.51 -10.65
Liberal Hugh Gourley 4,081 35.40
Conservative James Gore 3,728 32.34
Conservative Charles Haynes[24] 2,283 19.80
Independent David Nicol 407 3.53
Majority 294 2.55 -2.90
Turnout 11,528 68.07 +12.79
Registered electors 16,936

1890 election[edit]

General election, 1890: City of Dunedin[25]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal-Labour David Pinkerton 3,209 63.61
Liberal Henry Fish 2,934 58.16
Liberal William Hutchison 2,833 56.16
Conservative James Allen[26] 2,485 49.26
Conservative Richard Henry Leary[26] 1,838 36.43
Liberal Alfred Lee Smith[26] 1,835 36.38
Majority 348 6.90
Turnout 5,045 55.28
Registered electors 9,126

1875 election[edit]

General election, 1875: Dunedin[27][6]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Independent James Macandrew 891 71.22
Independent Robert Stout 865 69.14
Independent William Larnach 843 67.38
Independent William Hunter Reynolds 476 38.04
Independent James Macassey 409 32.69
Independent Henry Fish 238 19.02
Independent James Grant 29 2.31
Turnout 1,251

1860 election[edit]

General election, 1860: Town of Dunedin[28]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Independent Thomas Dick 96 44.04
Independent Edward McGlashan 88 40.37
Independent William John Dyer 34 15.60
Turnout 218

1859 by-election[edit]

Town of Dunedin by-election, 1859[4]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Independent James Macandrew 40 93.02 -
Independent James Gordon Stuart Grant[29] 3 6.98 -
Majority 37 86.05 -
Total votes 43

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 54ff.
  2. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 261.
  3. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 213.
  4. ^ a b "Election of a Member for the House of Representatives". Otago Witness (372). 15 January 1859. p. 5. Retrieved 19 December 2016. 
  5. ^ "Dunedin Representatives". Otago Witness (474). 29 December 1860. p. 5. Retrieved 6 July 2010. 
  6. ^ a b "The Late Mr James Macassey". Otago Daily Times (5695). 21 May 1880. p. 7. Retrieved 19 March 2012. 
  7. ^ "The General Elections". New Zealand Tablet. III (138). 24 December 1875. p. 12. Retrieved 19 March 2012. 
  8. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 212.
  9. ^ "The General Election, 1893". Wellington: Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1894 Session I, H-19. 1894. Retrieved 17 February 2012. 
  10. ^ "Representation Act 1862". 
  11. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 215.
  12. ^ Cyclopedia Company Limited (1905). "Ex-Members". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Otago & Southland Provincial Districts. Christchurch. Retrieved 30 June 2010. 
  13. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 184.
  14. ^ Morrell, William Parker (22 April 2009). "STOUT, Sir Robert, P.C., K.C.M.G.". An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 2 July 2010. 
  15. ^ "The General Election, 1899". Wellington: Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives. 19 June 1900. p. 2. Retrieved 1 November 2012. 
  16. ^ "City of Dunedin Electoral District". Otago Daily Times (11593). 29 November 1899. p. 6. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  17. ^ "The Dunedin Election". The Marlborough Express. XXXII (224). 14 October 1897. p. 2. Retrieved 10 May 2013. 
  18. ^ "Otago". Auckland Star. XXVII (305). 23 December 1896. p. 6. Retrieved 6 January 2014. 
  19. ^ "City of Dunedin Electoral District". Otago Daily Times (10666). 4 December 1896. p. 1. Retrieved 11 February 2014. 
  20. ^ Scholefield 1940, p. 55.
  21. ^ McRobie 1989, p. 64.
  22. ^ "The General Election, 1893". National Library. 1894. p. 3. Retrieved 19 November 2013. 
  23. ^ "The General Election". Otago Daily Times. 28 November 1893. p. 6. Retrieved 28 November 2013. 
  24. ^ Cyclopedia Company Limited (1905). "Mr. Charles Haynes, J. P". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Otago & Southland Provincial Districts. Christchurch: The Cyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 29 June 2012. 
  25. ^ "The General Election, 1890". National Library. 1891. p. 2. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  26. ^ a b c "Election Notices". Otago Daily Times (9975). 29 November 1890. p. 3. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  27. ^ "Dunedin Election". North Otago Times. 21 December 1875. p. 2. Retrieved 15 November 2016. 
  28. ^ "Local Intelligence". Otago Witness (474). 29 December 1860. Retrieved 14 January 2017. 
  29. ^ "List of Persons Qualified to Serve as Jurors for the Province of Otago, for the Year 1859-60". Otago Witness (375). 5 February 1859. p. 1. Retrieved 19 December 2016. 

References[edit]