Dung middens, also known as dung hills, are piles of dung that mammals periodically return to and build up. They are used as a form of territorial marker. A range of animals are known to use them including steenbok,hyrax (the dung beetle genus Dicranocara of the Richtersveld in South western Africa spends its whole lifecycle in close association with hyrax dung middens) and rhinoceros. Other animals such as beetles are attracted to them for a variety of purposes. This can include food as well as a location to find a mate. Dung often contains pollen which means fossilised dung middens can be used to learn about past climates.Paleobotany relies on the fact that each ecosystem is characterised by certain plants, which in turn act as a proxy for climate.
^Payne, Ben. "Glossary". Retrieved 2007-06-15. Dung midden : Pile of droppings that grows through consistent returns. Used as a territory marker in connection with scent-marking.
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