In American English, the term is used for hard-wearing work trousers made from such fabric and in British English for bib overalls in various fabrics, either for casual or work use. By 1891 Kipling was using the word to refer to a kind of garment (in the plural) as well as a fabric.
Dungaree vs. denim
Although dungarees now also refers to denim, it is unclear whether traditional dungarees were a precursor to denim. In the late 17th century, most dungarees produced were either washed and bleached, or dyed after weaving. Denim refers to cotton twill which may be warp dyed, undyed, or dyed after weaving. Denim may be 2x1 or 3x1 twill. It is unclear what types of dungaree fabric were available traditionally.
In the United States, the mill at Shady Lea, North Kingstown, Rhode Island, was built in the late 1820s by Esbon Sanford to manufacture a cotton-wool blend twill fabric called Kentucky Jean, resembling a cross between burlap and the dungaree fabric of today.
- Textiles : production, trade, and demand. Mazzaoui, Maureen Fennell. Aldershot: Ashgate/Variorum. 1998. ISBN 0-86078-509-2. OCLC 36138342.CS1 maint: others (link)
- "Levi's site consistently talks about Denim not Dungaree". levi.com. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
- "Dungaree". Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on 20 May 2016. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
- 1891, R. Kipling, poem, The City of Dreadful Night "He's got his dungarees on."
- R. Kipling, The Bridge Builders, "Peroo was standing on the topmost coping of the tower, clad in the blue dungaree of his abandoned service ...".
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-04-21. Retrieved 2018-04-21.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Heddels Know your twills". heddels.com. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
- Mill at Shady Lea origins
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