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Dungeon Master (video game)

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Dungeon Master
Cover art by David R. Darrow
Developer(s)FTL Games
Victor Musical Industries (X68000)[2]
Publisher(s)FTL Games
Victor Musical Industries (X68000)[2]
Director(s)Doug Bell
Producer(s)Wayne Holder
Designer(s)Doug Bell
  • Doug Bell
  • Dennis Walker
  • Mike Newton
Artist(s)Andrew Jaros
Composer(s)Wayne Holder[3]
Platform(s)Atari ST, Amiga, Apple IIGS,[4] MS-DOS (x86), SNES, TurboGrafx-CD, X68000, PC-9801, FM Towns
Genre(s)Role-playing, dungeon crawl
Mode(s)Single player

Dungeon Master is a role-playing video game featuring a pseudo-3D first-person perspective. It was developed and published by FTL Games for the Atari ST in 1987,[5] almost identical Amiga and PC (DOS) ports following in 1988 and 1992.

Dungeon Master sold 40,000 copies in its year of release alone,[6] and went on to become the ST's best-selling game of all time. The game became the prototype for the genre of the 3D dungeon crawlers with notable clones like Eye of the Beholder.[7]


Fighting a group of screamers (Atari ST)

In contrast to the traditional turn-based approach that was, in 1987, most common, Dungeon Master added real-time combat elements (akin to Active Time Battle).[8] Other factors in immersion were the use of sound effects to indicate when a creature was nearby, and (primitive) dynamic lighting. Abstract Dungeons and Dragons style experience points and levels were eschewed in favor of a system where the characters' skills were improved directly via using them. Dungeon Master was not the first game to introduce these features. Dungeons of Daggorath for the TRS-80 Color Computer first employed them in 1982. Dungeon Master was, however, responsible for popularizing these elements. Other features of Dungeon Master included allowing players to directly manipulate objects and the environment by clicking the mouse in the enlarged first-person view.[9] It also introduced some novel control methods including the spell casting system, which involved learning sequences of runes which represented the form and function of a spell's effect. For example, a fireball spell was created by mixing the fire symbol with the wing symbol.

While many previous games such as Alternate Reality: The Dungeon, The Bard's Tale, Ultima, and Wizardry offered Dungeons & Dragons-style role-playing, Dungeon Master established several new standards for role-playing video games and first-person video games in general,[9] such as the paper doll interface.

As Theron, the player cannot progress past the first section of the game until they have selected at least one and up to four champions from a small dungeon containing 24 mirrors, each containing a frozen champion. The frozen champions are based upon a variety of fantasy archetypes to allow diversity within the player's party.[10]


Many champions have been sent into the dungeon with the quest to recover Librasulus' (the Grey Lord) firestaff. With the firestaff, Librasulus can take physical form again and defeat Lord Chaos. The player is Theron, the apprentice of the Grey Lord, that goes into the dungeon with the task to resurrect four champions, and guide them through the dungeon, to find the firestaff and defeat Lord Chaos.

If the player finds the firestaff and uses it to defeat Lord Chaos, this will be the real ending of the game. But there is also an alternative ending if the player finds the firestaff and then leaves the dungeon without destroying Lord Chaos.


Originally, Dungeon Master was started with the name Crystal Dragon coded in Pascal, and targeted the Apple II platform. Doug Bell and Andy Jaros (Artwork) began development in their development studio PVC Dragon, before they joined in 1983 FTL Games.[3] It was finished there in C programming language and published in 1987 for the Atari ST first. A slightly updated Amiga version ported by Phil Mercurio was released the following year, which was the first video game to use 3D sound effects.

Dungeon Master was ported later to many platforms like PC, Apple IIGS, TurboGrafx-CD, SNES, Sharp X68000, PC-9801 and FM Towns. The game was also translated from English into German, French, Japanese, Chinese and Korean.

According to "The Definitive CDTV Retrospective: Part II" [11] by Peter Olafson, Dungeon Master was ported to the Amiga CDTV but this version was never completed because FTL could not obtain reliable information from Commodore about saving games to memory cards. Dungeon Master was also ported to Macintosh but never released. There exists a prototype for the Atari Lynx under the name Dungeon Slayers.[12][13]

The packaging cover art was designed and illustrated by David R. Darrow,[14] for which Andy Jaros posed as the leftmost character pulling on the torch. The woman in the scene was Darrow's wife, Andrea, and the muscular man in the background is unknown, but hired by Darrow from a local fitness club.[15] The painting itself is 25 to 30 inches high and doesn’t contain the word "Master". Darrow’s painting portrays a scene from the prologue in the manual for Dungeon Master. It shows the three (or four) main characters' last few minutes alive, and is a portrayal of the player’s challenge to defeat the antagonist, Lord Chaos. The heroes in the painting are Halk the Barbarian, Syra Child of Nature, Alex Ander – and Nabi the Prophet who’s been reduced to a bunch of skulls.

A soundtrack album, titled Dungeon Master: The Album, was released later. This album featured music composed by Darrell Harvey, Rex Baca, and Kip Martin.[16] The original ST version and its faithful Amiga and PC ports contain no music. The album features music composed for the FM Towns game, as well as FM Towns version of Chaos Strikes Back, and some original tracks that were inspired by the games.[17]


Dungeon Master debuted on 15 December 1987 on the Atari ST, and by early 1988 was a strong seller, becoming the best-selling game for the computer of all time; Bell estimated that at one point more than half of all Atari ST owners had purchased the game. Because of FTL's sophisticated copy protection, many who otherwise pirated their software had to purchase Dungeon Master to play the game. The Amiga version was the first prominent game to require 1 MB of RAM, likely causing many to purchase additional memory; at least one manufacturer of Amiga memory bundled Dungeon Master with its memory-expansion kit. As with Wizardry, many others offered for sale strategy guides, game trainers, and map editors, competing with FTL's own hint book.[1]

Hosea Battles Jr. of Computer Gaming World in 1988 praised the attention to detail in the dungeons' graphics, allowing players to "practically feel the damp chill of the dungeons portrayed", as well as those of the monsters, including the multiple facial expressions on the ogres. He said the control system works "extremely well" and "one's adrenaline really flows because the game is in real-time." Battles also praised the extensive use of sound effects, uncommon to RPGs. He complained that the manual does not describe monsters or their attributes, of a "frustrating" shortage of food and water replenishments and that the lack of a map makes the game "extremely difficult". Battles called the game "fantastic" and said "It is a welcome addition to any fantasy player's library. Those who want a good fantasy/role-playing game will love this one."[18] Scorpia stated in the magazine in 1992 that the newly released IBM PC version's graphics "are surprisingly good, all things considered" despite the game's age, but wrote that "No endgame has ever given me so much trouble or frustration". Although she believed that the game "is still eminently worth playing, even years later[, and] still has something to offer the seasoned adventurer", because of the endgame Scorpia "can't give it a blanket recommendation".[19] In 1993 she stated that "the game still holds up well after seven years, even graphically, and is worth playing today", but because of the ending was "not for the easily-frustrated".[20]

Computer and Video Games in 1988 called the story a "cliché" but praised the graphics, sound and controls. The reviewer said Dungeon Master is an example of a title which "changes the way we think about games" and a "must for all roleplayers".[21] Antic called the game as "revolutionary" as Zork and Flight Simulator II, citing "spectacular" graphics and stating that the game was "almost worth buying for the sound-effects alone". Despite the "commonplace" story "where once again, an Evil Wizard has taken over control of the world", the magazine advised readers to "buy this game".[22] Advanced Computing Entertainment said the graphics are "largely repetitive" but "wonderfully drawn" and wrote the "Sound is sparse but the effects are great." The reviewer called it a "thrilling game with plenty in it to keep you searching, fighting and pondering for a long time." He summarised the game as a "huge, immensely playable and very atmospheric mixture of role-playing and adventure. If you've been looking for a real-time role-playing game that manages to keep you interested for long periods of time, then your prayers have been answered."[23] The Games Machine wrote: "the innovative character selection system and icon display are both neatly implemented and quick to use", praised the "superb" atmosphere - enhanced by the spare but apt sound effects - and called the game universe "believable because of its details". The magazine praised the color and clarity of the monster graphics and the shading of the surroundings. It called the story and setting a "wholly engrossing scenario [which] creates a complete world which can be manipulated at will: its depth fully reflects the two years it took to program it. The presentation - an interesting and evocative novella neither too involved to prove turbid not too short to be unhelpful - is superb." The reviewer summarised: "Dungeon Master is a role-player's dream, but capable of providing a good deal of enjoyment for any ST owner."[24] STart told readers to "be prepared to shed every preconception you ever had about computer games. This is Dungeon Master". Noting the strong sales, the reviewer called it "a true video game phenomenon" and reported that "not talking to my boyfriend for a week because he lost our master spell list was certainly not an overreaction".[25]

Kati Hamza of Zzap!64 said of the Amiga version: "The first-person perspective ensures an incredibly realistic atmosphere - you just can't help really getting into the feeling of walking through damp echoing caverns looking for ghosts." The reviewer also said: "The puzzles are incredibly devious, the spell system is really flexible and the need to practise magic and spells gives the whole thing that extra-special depth." The reviewer asserted: "This has to be the most amazing game of all-time, anywhere, ever". In the same issue Gordon Houghton said: "This is just about the most incredible game I've ever seen. When you pick it up you find you lose whole days of your life." He said: "The best time to play it is late at night in a room by yourself - it's guaranteed to scare the life out of you. It's like Gauntlet in 3D, but about a hundred times better. If you enjoy arcade adventures, RPGs or combat games, but it: it's the perfect combination of all three." Reviewer Maff Evans professed to be little enthused by RPGs generally but said "I know a brilliant game when I see one and this is a brilliant game." He praised the scares delivered by ambushing monsters and said "you'd have to be deaf, dumb and blind not to be affected by the atmosphere". The magazine complained that saving games is "a bit laboured" but praised the "extremely detailed and accessible" controls, "interactive, detailed and extremely atmospheric" scenery and said the clarity of the graphics made the game an unusually accessible RPG. It summarized: "you'll be playing for months" and said Dungeon Master was "The best game we've ever seen".[26]

Also reviewing the Amiga version, Graham Kinsey of Amazing Computing wrote that Dungeon Master "completely blows away any other RPG on the Amiga market today, and may do for some time".[27] Dave Eriksson of Amiga Computing praised the "brilliant" graphics, sound effects and replay-value and said "Dungeon Master is the most stunning role-playing game I have seen on the Amiga".[28] Antic's Amiga Plus felt the game "captures the essence of Dungeons & Dragons role-playing games". The reviewer praised the "dazzling" graphics, called the user-friendly controls "a real joy" and said the game was the "best graphics adventure for the Amiga to date."[29] Your Amiga called the sound "extremely well done" and said the "most striking feature of the game is the attention to detail". The reviewer called the game "amazing" and recommended: "If you never buy another game, by [sic] this one."[30]

Andy Smith of Advanced Computing Entertainment several months after its release called Dungeon Master "one of the all time classics" and said "What makes Dungeon Master really special (apart from the marvellous 3D graphics and eerie sound effects) are the puzzles".[31] The game was reviewed in 1988 in Dragon #136 by Hartley, Patricia, and Kirk Lesser in "The Role of Computers" column. The reviewers gave the game 4½ out of 5 stars.[32] The Lessers reviewed the PC/MS-DOS version in 1993 in Dragon #195, giving this version 5 stars.[33] In 1997, ten years after release, Dungeon Master got again a 5 out of 5 stars score in a review.[34]


Dungeon Master received the Special Award for Artistic Achievement from Computer Gaming World in 1988.[35][36] It achieved the top place in the magazine's game rankings system,[37] and was entered into its hall of fame in November 1989.[38] In 1990 the game received the second-highest number of votes in a survey of Computer Gaming World readers' "All-Time Favorites".[39] In 1996, the magazine named Dungeon Master the 49th best game ever.[40] In 1996, GamesMaster listed the game 42nd in their Top 100 Games of All Time.[41]

The following is a comprehensive list of other awards received by the game.[42]

  • Special Award for Artistic Achievement awarded in 1988 by Computer Gaming World
  • Adventure Game of the Year, 1988UK Software Industry Awards
  • Best Selling Atari ST Title, 1988 — UK Software Industry Awards
  • Best Role Playing Game, 1988Power Play [de] (German)[43]
  • Best Role Playing Game, 1988Tilt
  • Best Sound Effects, 1988Tilt
  • Game of the Year, 1988Computer Play
  • Best Atari ST Game, 1988Computer Play
  • Game of the Year, 1988Génération 4 (French)
  • "Golden Sword" Award, 1988 — The Adventurer's Club of the UK
  • Best Role Playing Game, 1988 — The Adventurer's Club of the UK
  • "Beastie Award", 1988Dragon
  • Best Atari ST Title, 1988Dragon
  • Best Game, 1989Amiga World
  • Best Role Playing Game, 1989Amiga World
  • Best Amiga Game, 1989Game Players
  • Best Amiga Game, 1989Datormagazin [sv] (Swedish)
  • "Beastie Award" Best Apple //GS Title, 1989Dragon
  • Best Game, 1989.info
  • Best of the Amiga, 1989Compute!
  • Inducted as an original member in the Computer Gaming World Hall of Fame in 1989
  • Designated as one of the 100 Best Games by PowerPlay (German, January 1990)[44]
  • 16th best game of all time in Amiga Power (May 1991)[45]

Sequels and legacy[edit]

While Dungeon Master itself was inspired by early Ultima games,[3] it amazed Ultima developer Origin Systems's employees; Origin founder Richard Garriott said that he was "ecstatic" at discovering the "neat new things I could do" in the game. It influenced Ultima VI's graphical user interface and seamless map,[46] and the later Ultima Underworld.[47] Game journalist Niko Nirvi wrote that no 3D role-playing title before Ultima Underworld (1992) could challenge Dungeon Master as a game.

In 1989, FTL Games released a Dungeon Master sequel, Chaos Strikes Back.

To date, Dungeon Master retains a small but faithful following online, with several fan-made ports and remakes available or in development.[48] Notable reception received a faithful reconstruction of the Atari ST version, called "CSBWin", which was released in 2001. Reverse engineered in six months work from the original by Paul R. Stevens, the available source code of CSBwin led to many ports for modern platforms like Windows and Linux.[49] In 2014, Christophe Fontanel released another reverse engineering project which tries to recreate all existing versions and ports.[50]

The villagers in the sandbox game Minecraft were inspired by the shopkeepers from Dungeon Master 2.[51]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Maher, Jimmy (2015-12-11). "Dungeon Master, Part 1: The Making of". The Digital Antiquarian. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
  2. ^ a b c "Dungeon Master Release Information for Sharp X68000 - GameFAQs". gamefaqs.gamespot.com.
  3. ^ a b c McFerran, Damien (2006). "The Making of Dungeon Master" (PDF). Issue 34. Retro Gamer Magazine. pp. 30–31. Retrieved 2011-01-19.
  4. ^ Daniel Durgan (October 1998). "Interview with the Apple Dungeon Master programmer Don Jordan". The Un-Official Dungeon Master Web Site. Archived from the original on 2000-12-05.
  5. ^ Barton, Matt (2007-02-23). "Part 2: The Golden Age (1985–1993)". The History of Computer Role-Playing Games. Gamasutra. Archived from the original on 2009-03-30. Retrieved 2009-03-26.
  6. ^ Petersen, Sandy (December 1993). "Eye of the Monitor". Dragon. No. 200. Lake Geneva, Wisconsin: TSR, Inc. p. 73.
  7. ^ Owens, Dennis (June 1991). "Beauty is in the Eye of the Beholder". Computer Gaming World. p. 14. Retrieved 17 November 2013. This personalized combat perspective undoubtedly earned much of the praise for FTL's CGW Hall of Fame member, Dungeon Master. In a very real sense, Eye of the Beholder (SSI's first entry in the "Legend Series," a new line of AD&D computer role-playing games) is Dungeon Master meets veteran storyteller George MacDonald.
  8. ^ Barton, Matt (December 2008). Dungeons and Desktops: The History of Computer Role-Playing Games. A. K. Peters, Ltd. p. 236. ISBN 978-1-4398-6524-8.
  9. ^ a b Stahl, Edwin Robert (2002). "Exploring the Virtual Frontier: The Evolution of Narrative Form in Immersive Video Games" (PDF). St Louis University. pp. 44–45. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-06-26. Retrieved 2008-06-19. It was the most advanced RPG experience available and a true immersive milestone. [...] What made Dungeon Master so important [...] was its combination of a first-person 3D engine, point-and-click interface, and enveloping sound.
  10. ^ "Dungeon Master Champions". Dungeon Master Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  11. ^ Peter Olafson. "The Definitive CDTV Retrospective: Part II". Archived from the original on 2006-03-18. Retrieved 2008-07-16.
  12. ^ "Dungeon Slayers". AtariAge. Retrieved 2019-04-21.
  13. ^ Dodgson, Harry (December 22, 2011). "DungeonMaster (aka "Dungeon Slayers") for the Lynx?". AtariAge. Archived from the original on 2014-08-20. Retrieved 2019-04-21.
  14. ^ DM Original Artwork - Dungeon Master Encyclopedia
  15. ^ This is how the cover art of Dungeon Master (1987) was made - Spelpappan.se (2013)
  16. ^ "DUNGEON MASTER: THE ALBUM from FTL. Review of the Dungeon Master Album in Game Bytes issue 18". www.ibiblio.org.
  17. ^ "Audio CD - Dungeon Master The Album | Dungeon Master Encyclopaedia". dmweb.free.fr.
  18. ^ Battles, Hosea Jr. (April 1988). "In The Eye of a Beholder!". Computer Gaming World. pp. 18–19. Retrieved 25 March 2016.
  19. ^ Scorpia (November 1992). "Dungeon Master". Computer Gaming World. pp. 94–96. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  20. ^ Scorpia (October 1993). "Scorpia's Magic Scroll Of Games". Computer Gaming World. pp. 34–50. Retrieved 25 March 2016.
  21. ^ April 1988, Computer and Video Games (issue 78), p. 92
  22. ^ Bernstein, Harvey (May 1988). "New ST Entertainments / From dungeons to outer space". Antic. Vol. 7, no. 1.
  23. ^ Smith, Andy (May 1988). "Dungeon Master". Advanced Computing Entertainment. No. 8. pp. 54–55.
  24. ^ "Men Down Under". The Games Machine. No. 5. April 1988. pp. 64–65.
  25. ^ Brumbaugh, Heidi (Summer 1988). "The Dungeon Master Experience". STart. Vol. 3, no. 2 #13.
  26. ^ Hamza, Kati; Evans, Maff; Houghton, Gordon (April 1989). "Dungeon Master". Zzap!64. No. 48. pp. 60–62.
  27. ^ Kinsey, Graham (July 1989). "Dungeon Master". Amazing Computing. Vol. 4, no. 7. pp. 47–49.
  28. ^ Eriksson, Dave (April 1989). "Into the famous dungeon". Amiga Computing. Vol. 1, no. 11. pp. 14–18.
  29. ^ Rimpilainen, Aki (August–September 1989). "Dungeon Master". Antic's Amiga Plus. Vol. 1, no. 3. p. 52-53.
  30. ^ Webb, Allen (June 1989). "Review: Dungeon Master". Your Amiga. pp. 44–45.
  31. ^ Smith, Andy (April 1989). "Dungeon Master: Update Special". Advanced Computing Entertainment. No. 19. p. 85.
  32. ^ Lesser, Hartley; Lesser, Patricia; Lesser, Kirk (August 1988). "The Role of Computers". Dragon. No. 136. pp. 76–81.
  33. ^ Lesser, Hartley; Lesser, Patricia; Lesser, Kirk (July 1993). "The Role of Computers". Dragon. No. 195. pp. 57–64.
  34. ^ Rosemary Young (1997-01-01). "Dungeon Master dust off after 10 years 5/5 Stars rating". Archived from the original on 2007-04-11. Retrieved 2011-01-05.
  35. ^ "Announcing Computer Gaming World's 1988 Game of the Year Awards". Computer Gaming World. No. 52. October 1988. p. 54.
  36. ^ "Game of the Year Awards". Computer Gaming World. No. 53. November 1988. pp. 21, 35.
  37. ^ "Computer Gaming World's Top 100 Games". Computer Gaming World. No. 64. October 1989. pp. 36–37.
  38. ^ "Computer Gaming World's Top 100 Games". Computer Gaming World. No. 65. November 1989. pp. 48–49.
  39. ^ "CGW Readers Select All-Time Favorites". Computer Gaming World. January 1990. p. 64. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
  40. ^ "150 Best Games of All Time". Computer Gaming World. November 1996. pp. 64–80. Retrieved 25 March 2016.
  41. ^ "Top 100 Games of All Time" (PDF). GamesMaster (44): 76. July 1996.
  42. ^ Daniel Durgan (October 1998). "Awards". The Un-Official Dungeon Master Web Site. Archived from the original on 2000-12-04.
  43. ^ Schneider, Boris (February 1988). "Dungeon Master" (in German). PowerPlay. Retrieved 2010-11-18.
  44. ^ Hengst, Michael (January 1990). "Die 100 Besten Spiele: Dungeon Master – Mumien, Monster, Mutationen und Magie" (in German). PowerPlay. Retrieved 2010-11-18.
  45. ^ Amiga Power magazine issue 0, Future Publishing, May 1991
  46. ^ Maher, Jimmy (2017-04-07). "Ultima VI". The Digital Antiquarian.
  47. ^ Paul Neurath (2000-06-23). "The Story of Ultima Underworld". Looking Glass Studios. Archived from the original on 2001-03-09. Retrieved 2011-01-04.
  48. ^ Fontanel, Christophe. "Clones". Dungeon Master Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 2011-08-04. Dungeon Master opened a new way for computer role-playing games, inspiring many developers. A lot of commercial games tried to improve the genre (like Eye of the Beholder I, II and III, Captive, Lands Of Lore, etc...) [...] More recently, some fans have been active at keeping the dream alive.
  49. ^ Walker, John (2012-03-29). "You Could Be Playing Dungeon Master Right Now". Rock, Paper, Shotgun. Retrieved 2015-08-03. There is a version that just works, without an emulator, and it's free. [...] A madman by the name of Paul Stevens spent six months, eight hours a day, writing 120,000 lines of what he calls "pseudo-assembly language" to rebuild it in C++. And then released the game and source code for free. Can he do that? I've decided that yes, he can, which legitimises my promoting it to you.
  50. ^ Back to the source: ReDMCSB by Christophe Fontanel (18-Jan-2014)
  51. ^ Rahaman, Reyadh (2020-12-02). "Minecraft: 10 Things You Never Knew About Villages & Villagers". Game Rant. Retrieved 2022-08-09.
  52. ^ "Ludotique | Article | RPGGeek". rpggeek.com.
  53. ^ Rosenthal, Pierre; Stora, Frank (April 1988). "Ludotique - Dungeon Master". Casus Belli (in French). p. 102.
  54. ^ "Jeux & stratégie 51". June 1988.

External links[edit]