Dungeons & Dragons gameplay

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In the Dungeons & Dragons role-playing game, game mechanics and die rolls determine much of what happens. These mechanics include:

  • Ability scores, the most basic statistics of a character, which influence all other statistics
  • Armor class, how well-protected a character is against physical attack
  • Hit points, how much punishment a character can take before going unconscious or dying
  • Saving throws, a character's defenses against nonphysical or area attacks (like poisons, fireballs, and enchantments)
  • Attack rolls and attacks, how effectively a character can score hits against, and inflict damage to, another character
  • Skills, how competent a character is in various areas of expertise
  • Feats, what special advantages a character has through natural aptitude or training

Ability scores[edit]

For general information on abilities in role-playing games, see Attribute (role-playing games).

All player characters have six basic statistics:[1]

  • Strength (STR): Strength is a measure of muscle, endurance and stamina combined. Strength affects the ability of characters to lift and carry weights, melee attack rolls, damage rolls (for both melee and ranged weapons,) the Jump, Climb, and Swim skills, several combat actions, and general checks involving moving or breaking stubborn objects.
  • Dexterity (DEX): Dexterity encompasses a number of physical attributes including hand-eye coordination, agility, reflexes, fine motor skills, balance and speed of movement; a high dexterity score indicates superiority in all these attributes. Dexterity affects characters with regard to initiative in combat, ranged attack rolls, Armor Class, Reflex saves, and the Balance, Escape Artist, Hide, Move Silently, Open Lock, Ride, Sleight of Hand, Tumble, and Use Rope skills. It also affects the number of additional attacks of opportunity granted by the Combat Reflexes feat. Dexterity is the ability most influenced by outside influences (such as armor).
  • Constitution (CON): Constitution is a term which encompasses the character's physique, toughness, health and resistance to disease and poison. The higher a character's Constitution, the more hit points that character will have. Constitution also is important for Fortitude saves, the Concentration skill, and fatigue-based general checks. Constitution also determines the duration of a barbarian's rage. Unlike the other ability scores, which render the character unconscious or immobile when they hit 0, having 0 Constitution is fatal.
  • Intelligence (INT): Intelligence is similar to IQ, but also includes mnemonic ability, reasoning and learning ability outside those measured by the written word. Intelligence dictates the number of languages a character can learn, and it influences the number of spells a preparation-based arcane spellcaster (like a Wizard) may cast per day, and the effectiveness of said spells. It also affects how many skill points a character gains per level, the Appraise, Craft, Decipher Script, Disable Device, Forgery, Knowledge, Search, and Spellcraft skills, and bardic knowledge checks.
  • Wisdom (WIS): Wisdom is a composite term for the character's enlightenment, judgment, wile, willpower and intuitiveness. Wisdom influences the number of spells a divine spellcaster (like clerics, druids, paladins, and rangers) can cast per day, and the effectiveness of said spells. It also affects Will saving throws, the Heal, Listen, Profession, Sense Motive, Spot, and Survival skills, the effectiveness of the Stunning Fist feat, and a monk's quivering palm attack.
  • Charisma (CHA): Charisma is the measure of the character's combined physical attractiveness, persuasiveness, and personal magnetism. A generally non-beautiful character can have a very high charisma due to strong measures of the other two aspects of charisma. Charisma influences how many spells spontaneous arcane spellcasters (like sorcerers and bards) can cast per day, and the effectiveness of said spells. It also affects Bluff, Diplomacy, Disguise, Gather Information, Handle Animal, Intimidate, Perform, and Use Magic Device checks, how often and how effectively clerics and paladins can turn undead, the wild empathy of druids and rangers, and a paladin's lay on hands ability.

An ability score is a natural number, with a value of 10 or 11 representing average human ability.


  • Comeliness (COM): In the original version of AD&D Comeliness was introduced as a 7th Ability Score/Stat in the supplemental rulebook Unearthed Arcana and Oriental Adventures to differentiate between physical attractiveness and Charisma. Comeliness has not appeared as an officially supported ability score since, although the second edition rules Player's Option: Skills & Powers introduced "Appearance" as one of twelve subability scores.
  • Sanity (SAN): Suggested in the 5th Edition Dungeon Master's Guide for campaigns shaped by the constant risk of insanity. It is checked for actions like understanding the writings of raving lunatics and used for dedicatedly dealing with resisting the equally optional madness damage type, caused for example by contact with alien planes of existence (or its denizens) that defy the rules of the material plane.
  • Honor (HON): Suggested in the 5th Edition Dungeon Master's Guide for campaigns shaped by a strict code of honor like East-Asia-inspired ones or those with a focus on chivalry of any sort. It determines both how well the character adheres to the respective society's code and how well he understands its tenets. It may also reflect others' perception of the character's honorability. Mechanically, high (or low) Honor is used in social interaction in situations in which it may be more relevant than a person's Charisma or in a saving throw to resist for example the urge to act dishonorably. Unlike others, this ability score can not be raised by the player after character creation. Instead, the dungeon master can increase (or decrease) its value by 1 at the end of an adventure according to the player character's actions throughout it.

Ability modifiers[edit]

Beginning with the 3rd Edition, each score has a corresponding ability modifier, where Modifier = (Score − 10)/2, rounded down. This modifier is added to the appropriate dice rolls. For example, the strength modifier would be added to the damage dealt by a sword, the dexterity modifier to Armor Class (see below) as the character's ability to dodge attacks, and the charisma modifier to an attempt to smooth-talk a merchant.

Determining ability scores[edit]

There are several methods of determining a character’s initial ability scores during character creation:

  • Rolling dice (3d6): This is the standard method for older editions. For each ability score, the player rolls 3d6, and adds the values, resulting in scores ranging from three to eighteen, averaging between 10 and 11.
  • Rolling dice (4d6, keep 3): This is the standard method since 3rd edition.[2] For each ability score, the player rolls 4d6, and adds the three highest values, resulting in scores ranging from three to eighteen, skewed towards higher numbers, averaging 12.2446, though the most probable result is 13.[3]
  • Predetermined array of scores: Each player uses the same set of numbers, choosing which ability score to apply them to.
  • Point buy: In the point buy system, a player has a certain number of points to spend on ability scores, and each score has a certain point cost affixed to it, where higher scores cost more points than lower ones. This method is used in Dungeons & Dragons Online (and other computerized D&D-based games, such as Neverwinter Nights).


Armor class[edit]

Main article: Armor class

Armor Class (AC) is a rating used to determine how difficult it is to damage a creature/character. It is based on several factors such as a creature's natural aversion to physical injury, magical enhancements, and any protective garments worn. The base stat of Dexterity grants bonuses to AC.

  • In the original game, Armor Class ranged from 9 to 0, because armor and dexterity modifiers were applied to hit rolls instead. Negative values first appeared in the Greyhawk supplement, because it first applied them directly to the Armor Class.[4]
  • In some editions of the game prior to 3.0, Armor Class ranges from -10 to 10. Having an AC of 10 was the weakest, and a -10 being the strongest possible written AC.[5]
  • In 3rd, 3.5, and 4th and 5th editions, Armor Class instead starts at 10 and increases. Extremely non-dextrous or non-moving creatures may suffer penalties that lower their Armor Class below 10.


In 4th edition, there are three Defenses that function similarly to Armor Class. Fortitude is based on Strength or Constitution; it represents a character's endurance to pain. Reflex is based on Dexterity or Intelligence and can be modified by a shield; it represents a character's ability to dodge. Will is based on Wisdom or Charisma; it represents a character's strength of mind and resistance to mental attack. These defenses are typically lower than AC, so an attack against Fortitude is usually better than an attack against AC.

Hit points[edit]

Hit points (HP) are a measure of a character's vitality or health; they are determined by the character's class (certain occupations breed hardier people) or race, and Constitution score. Hit points are reduced whenever a character takes damage.

In the original D&D game, as well as first edition AD&D, a character died when his/her hit point total reached 0. In second edition, an optional rule was introduced in which a character died when his/her hit points reached -10, with beings falling unconscious at 0 HP, and living creatures reduced to negative HPs continue to lose additional HPs due to bleeding, etc. unless they are stabilized by chance or healing (natural or magical); in third edition, this rule became part of the core rules.

In 4th Edition, death occurs when a character's Hit Point value is reduced to the character's Bloodied value expressed as a negative number. For example, if a character has Hit Points of 52 (and therefore a Bloodied value of 26), this character is unconscious and dying at 0 hit points and death occurs when his/her hit points reach -26.

In 5th Edition, a character is killed automatically if the damage is greater than the negative value of their maximum hit points. Otherwise, a player at 0 hit points must begin making "death saving throws", where an unmodified d20 roll resulting in 10 or above is a success, below 10 a failure. If the player gets three failures before three successes, the character is dead. If three successes are recorded, the character is stable but unconscious. A result of 1 counts as two failures, while a result of 20 is automatic success and a the character regains 1 hit point. A fellow player may attempt to stabilize their companion using a medicine skill check, or use more advanced healing options.

Saving throws[edit]

For general information on saving throws in role-playing games, see Saving throw.

Certain situations give characters the chance to avoid special types of danger or attacks. These chances are called saving throws or saves. A saving throw is made when a character would come to harm from extraordinary means such as poisons and magical compulsions in nature.

In the early editions of D&D, there are five categories of saving throws, based on the form of the potential damage:

  • Paralysis, Poison, or Death Magic
  • Petrification or Polymorph
  • Rods, Staves, Wands – against magical devices
  • Spells
  • Breath Weapons – such as with dragons or gorgons

In 3rd Edition, they were reduced to three kinds of Saving Throws based one at aspect of the character was under threat.

  • Fortitude – A Fortitude save represents physical toughness. Fortitude saves involve a character's resistance to an effect that directly attacks his health, stamina, or soul. Fortitude saves are affected by the Constitution ability score.
  • Reflex – A Reflex save represents physical agility. Reflex saves are affected by the Dexterity ability score.
  • Will – A Will saves involve a character's mental resistance to mental dominance, confusion, stress, and insanity. A ill saves are affected by the Wisdom ability score.

In 4th Edition there is only one type of saving throw. Saving throws are usually rolled after you have already been affected by an attack (by hitting your AC or your Fortitude, Reflex, or Will defense, defenses which the 3rd Edition saves had been converted into), rolled each round to give you a chance to shake off the effect. They are meant partly to simplify record-keeping for effects that last more than one round but less than the encounter.

In 5th Edition, saving throws are explicitly tied to the ability scores, and carry their names, resulting in six categories of saves. A saving throw is performed similarly to a skill check, with a d20 roll result added to the relevant ability modifier and, if applicable, the proficiency bonus.


When a character makes an attack a 20-sided die is rolled to determine success/failure. The result could be adjusted based on any number of possible modifiers the character or its intended target have.

The number added to the die roll is actually several different modifiers combined, coming from different places. These modifiers include the character's proficiency with the specific weapon and weapons in general, the quality of the weapon (masterwork craftsmanship or magical enhancements), the modifier of the ability associated with the weapon (strength for melee weapons, and dexterity for ranged weapons), magical effects improving/hampering the character's ability to attack, and any special experience the character has fighting a certain foe.

  • In the original and Advanced Dungeons & Dragons, and in the Basic game, the final result is compared to a table along with the target's Armor class to see if the attack hits. Every general class type had its own matrix-style table, while monsters used the same matrix as the generic fighter character type.
  • In AD&D 2nd Edition, if the final result equals or exceeds the attacker's THAC0 (the pre-recorded number the character needs To Hit Armor Class 0"), the attacker has successfully hit a target with armor class 0. If the target has an armor class different from zero (which is far more likely than not), the target's Armor Class is subtracted from the attacker's THAC0, and that number is what the attacker's roll must equal or exceed to see if the attack hits.
  • Since 3rd Edition, the attack hits simply if the final result is equal to or greater than the target's Armor Class.[6]


The combat mechanic is turn-based and operates in rounds. A round is a discrete time interval (approximately 6 seconds, game-time in later editions, and approximately 1 minute in earlier editions) in which all involved parties act in the combat. The order in which parties involved in the combat act is determined by Initiative.

  • In older editions, characters are allowed to move their speed and attack every round, or perform a reasonable combination of other actions.
  • In 3rd and 3.5 editions, what a character can and cannot do in a given round is more codified; a character may perform one standard and one move action, two move actions or one full-round action in a round, along with any number of free actions, and a single swift or immediate action. Unlike other types of actions, immediate actions may also be taken during someone else's turn, though that counts as using the immediate action slot for the character's following turn.
  • In 4th edition, a character is allotted one standard action, one move action, one minor action, and any number of free actions to be performed during his or her turn. Each action can be downgraded, such as replacing a standard action with a move action or a move action with a minor action, with results similar to 3.5's possible combinations of actions. In addition, a character may take one opportunity action during each other character's turn, and one immediate action during any round, defined as the time between the end of the character's turn and the beginning of his next turn. Immediate and opportunity actions each have a defined trigger that allows their use, based on other characters' actions, and are categorized as reactions that are resolved after the trigger or as interrupts that are resolved before or in place of the triggering event. Neither immediate nor opportunity actions may be taken during the character's turn.


For general information on skills in role-playing games, see Statistic (role-playing games)#Skills.

Dungeons & Dragons, starting with AD&D 2nd Edition and continuing to the current 5th Edition, has many skills that characters may train in. In the 2nd Edition these were broken down into Weapon and Non-Weapon Proficiencies.

In 3rd Edition they are all simply referred to as "Skills". Characters gain skill points for buying skill ranks based on class, level, and intelligence. Some skills can only be taken by certain classes, such as Read Lips or Animal Empathy. These skills are called exclusive skills. Others can be used even if the character has no ranks in that skill (i.e., is not trained in that skill).

From 3.5 to 4th edition, the list of skills was drastically reduced. This usually resulted in each skill covering a broader range of activities, though some skills were removed entirely, such as Profession and Craft. The skill rank system was also removed, each skill being instead trained or untrained, with a constant bonus given to any trained skill along with a bonus based on the character's level. A character begins with a number of trained skills based on and chosen according to his class. The character gains new skill training only through spending a feat for that purpose, though these may be chosen regardless of class.

In 5th Edition, the skills are more tightly tied to the ability scores, with each skill being seen as an area of specialization within the ability. Any skill check may be attempted by any character, but only characters that have proficiency in the specific skill area apply their proficiency bonus (a flat bonus tied to character level) to those particular skill checks. Characters gain proficiencies from their race, class, and character background, with additional proficiencies added by some feats.

A skill check is always a d20 roll, with bonuses added. Sometimes, a skill check may be aided by favorable circumstances (such as you brandishing a weapon while using Intimidate) or hampered by unfavorable circumstances (such as using improvised tools to pick a lock).

A "check" is successful when the roll is higher than or equal to the Difficulty Class (DC) of the task. Usually, the Dungeon Master sets the DC. Sometimes the DC is set by the result of something else's check, this is an "opposed check". An example of an opposed check is spot against stealth: the character is trying to see something else that is hidden/trying not to be seen.


For general information on feats in the d20 System, see Feat (d20 System).

Feats were introduced in 3rd edition of Dungeons & Dragons. They are similar to the proficiencies of 2nd edition, giving characters more depth in a structured way for the game.

A feat is an advantage, often some special option for the character (such as a special combat maneuver) or some modification to game options and the mechanics involved. Feats can be contrasted with skills, which were also introduced in the same edition, in that using a feat does not usually require the particular success/fail roll that skills do. Instead of possessing a certain rank at a skill, a character either possesses a feat or does not.

There are many different types of feats. Some are magical; such as "Silent Spell"[7] which allows a spellcaster to cast a spell without speaking words. Others are combat-related, such as "Weapon Focus" which gives a bonus to attack rolls when a character is using a certain weapon (such as a longsword). Another example is "Leadership", which allows the character to attract henchmen and followers.

Many feats, especially the most powerful ones, require certain prerequisites (such as related feats or minimum ability scores) in order to select that feat.[7] Some feats provide continual effects, while others, typically ones that have some cost to use or can be used to a variable degree,[8] must be declared before use.[9]

The 4th Edition feat system is similar to the system in 3.5, with each feat having any number of prerequisites and some beneficial effect. Feats are also categorized by type, though "general" feats lack a category. "Class" and "Racial" feats require the character to be the indicated class or race. The "Heroic", "Paragon", and "Epic" descriptors indicate that the character must be in that tier or higher in order to choose the feat. "Divinity" feats grant a character with the "Channel Divinity" power an additional, alternative use for that power.

In 5th Edition, feats are made an optional character customization feature. As characters advance, at certain levels players increase their characters' ability scores. If playing with feats, they may forgo the ability score increases to take feats, which are structured as a package of thematically related improvements, some of which have prerequisites.


  1. ^ Livingstone, Ian (1982). Dicing with Dragons. Routledge. p. 72. ISBN 0-7100-9466-3. 
  2. ^ Dungeon Master's Guide, p. 169.
  3. ^ Sullivan, Kevin. "D&D Statistics". 
  4. ^ Comment on Greyhawk supplement
  5. ^ Livingstone (1982:77).
  6. ^ Tweet, Jonathan (2003), Player's Handbook, Renton, Washington: Wizards of the Coast, p. 134 , "Attack Roll", "If your result equals or beats the target's Armor Class, you hit...."
  7. ^ a b Player's Handbook. Wizards of the Coast, July 1, 2003. See "Feats".
  8. ^ Player's Handbook. Wizards of the Coast, July 1, 2003. See "Expertise" and "Power Attack" as feats that can be used to variable degrees.
  9. ^ Player's Handbook. Wizards of the Coast, July 1, 2003. See "Dodge" in the section on "Feats", for an example of a feat that has to be declared.