|Juvenile, Farmoor Reservoir, Oxfordshire|
|Distribution of subspecies, migration routes, and major European wintering sites|
The dunlin (Calidris alpina) is a small wader, sometimes separated with the other "stints" in Erolia. It is a circumpolar breeder in Arctic or subarctic regions. Birds that breed in northern Europe and Asia are long-distance migrants, wintering south to Africa, southeast Asia and the Middle East. Birds that breed in Alaska and the Canadian Arctic migrate short distances to the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of North America, although those nesting in Northern Alaska overwinter in Asia. Many dunlins winter along the Iberian south coast.
The dunlin is highly gregarious in winter, sometimes forming large flocks on coastal mudflats or sandy beaches. Large numbers can often be seen swirling in synchronized flight on stop-overs during migration or on their winter habitat.
This bird is one of the most common and best-known waders throughout its breeding and wintering ranges, and it is the species with which other waders tend to be compared. At 17–21 cm (6.7–8.3 in) length and with a 32–36 cm (13–14 in) wingspan, it is similar in size to a common starling, but stouter, with a thicker bill.
The dunlin moves along the coastal mudflat beaches it prefers with a characteristic "sewing machine" feeding action, methodically picking small food items. Insects form the main part of the dunlin's diet on the nesting grounds; it eats mollusks, worms and crustaceans in coastal areas.
An adult dunlin in breeding plumage shows the distinctive black belly which no other similar-sized wader possesses. The winter dunlin is basically grey above and white below. Juveniles are brown above with two whitish "V" shapes on the back. They usually have black marks on the flanks or belly and show a strong white wingbar in flight.
The legs and slightly decurved bill are black. There are a number of subspecies differing mainly in the extent of rufous coloration in the breeding plumage and the bill length. Bill length varies between sexes, the females having longer bills than the males.
- C. a. arctica, (Schiøler, 1922), breeds in northeast Greenland.
- C. a. schinzii, (Brehm & Schilling, 1822), breeds in southeast Greenland, Iceland, the British Isles, Scandinavia & the Baltic.
- C. a. alpina, (Linnaeus, 1758), breeds in northern Europe and northwest Siberia.
- C. a. centralis, (Buturlin, 1932), breeds in north-central and northeast Siberia.
- C. a. sakhalina, (Vieillot, 1816), breeds in eastern Russia to the Chukchi Peninsula.
- C. a. kistchinski, (Tomkovich, 1986), breeds around the Sea of Okhotsk to Kuril Islands and Kamchatka.
- C. a. actites, (Nechaev & Tomkovich, 1988), breeds on Sakhalin.
- C. a. arcticola, (Todd, 1953), breeds from northwest Alaska to northwest Canada.
- C. a. pacifica, (Coues, 1861), breeds in western and southern Alaska.
- C. a. hudsonia, (Todd, 1953), breeds in central Canada.
The nest is a shallow scrape on the ground lined with vegetation, into which typically four eggs are laid and incubated by the male and female parents. Chicks are precocial, however are brooded during early development. They start to fly at approximately three weeks of age. The majority of brood care is provided by the male, as the female deserts the brood and often leaves the breeding area.
The call is a typical sandpiper "peep", and the display song a harsh trill.
The dunlin is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies.
Apparent hybrids between this species and the white-rumped sandpiper as well as with the purple sandpiper have been reported from the Atlantic coasts of North America (McLaughlin & Wormington, 2000, and external link below) and Europe (Millington, 1994), respectively.
- McLaughlin K. A. & Wormington, A. (2000). An apparent Dunlin × White-rumped Sandpiper hybrid. Ontario Birds 18(1): 8-12.
- Martin-Löf, P. (1961). "Mortality rate calculations on ringed birds with special reference to the Dunlin Calidris alpina". Arkiv för Zoologi (Zoology files), Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademien (The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences) Serie 2. Band 13 (21).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dunlin.|
|Wikispecies has information related to: Calidris alpina|
- Dunlin videos, photos, and sounds at the Internet Bird Collection
- Dunlin Species Account - Cornell Lab of Ornithology
- Dunlin - Calidris alpina - USGS Patuxent Bird Identification InfoCenter
- Ocean Wanderers: A putative hybrid White-rumped Sandpiper × Dunlin from the east coast of the USA. Retrieved 2006-OCT-11
- Ageing and sexing (PDF; 1.6 MB) by Javier Blasco-Zumeta & Gerd-Michael Heinze
- Dunlin photo gallery at VIREO (Drexel University)