Statue of Sam Maguire in the town square
|Town charter||23 November 1693|
|Time zone||UTC0 (WET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+1 (IST)|
Dunmanway (Irish: Dúnmaonmhuí, official Irish name: Dún Mánmhaí) is a town in County Cork, in the southwest of Ireland. It is the geographical centre of the region known as West Cork. It is the birthplace of Sam Maguire, an Irish Protestant republican, for whom the trophy of the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship is named.
There is disagreement over the meaning and origin of the town's name. Various sources list its meaning when translated from Irish as "the castle of the yellow river," "the castle on the little plain," "the fort of the gables (or pinnacles)," and "the fort of the yellow women." The town centre is built on and around two rivers, each of which are tributaries of the larger River Bandon, which passes by at the east end of the town.
The town is twinned with Quéven, France. Dunmanway won the Irish Tidy Towns Competition in 1982. More recently, the town came to national and international attention thanks to a visit by Liverpool Football Club for a pre-season soccer friendly.
Dunmanway has been inhabited since prehistoric times, as testified by a Bronze Age trumpet in the British Museum. 19th century references date the founding of Dunmanway to the late 17th century, when the English crown settled a colony there to provide a resting place for troops marching between Bandon and Bantry. By 1700, about thirty families lived in the town.
Sir Richard Cox, Lord Chancellor of Ireland from 1703 to 1707, was the town's most important early patron. Cox obtained a grant from King William III to hold market days and fairs in the town and strongly encouraged the development of the local flax industry. To that end, Cox imported artisans from Ulster to teach the required skills. He sponsored numerous incentives for local residents involved in making linen, including rent-free housing for top producers, bonuses for efficient labourers, rewards for schoolgirls who showed strong loom skills, and production contests with generous prizes. In 1735, the town consisted of forty houses and two to three hundred people. By 1747, the linen industry was well established, and Cox's personal census recorded 557 people. Two years later, it rose to 807.
Free market economic policies in England led to the removal of protective duties on linen in 1827. In 1837, Samuel Lewis's Topographical Dictionary of Ireland recorded a population of 2,738. It also recorded the town's changing economic fortunes:
"The manufacture of linen continued to flourish for some years, but at present there are very few looms at work. A porter and ale brewery, established in 1831, produces 2,600 barrels annually; there are also two tanyards and two boulting-mills, the latter capable of grinding annually 15,000 bags of flour, and there are two or three smaller mills in the vicinity. Since 1810 a considerable trade in corn has been carried on."
West Cork was hit hard by the 1840s Great Famine. On 9 February 1847, U.S. Vice President George M. Dallas chaired a famine relief meeting in Washington, D.C. where attendees heard a letter addressed to the "Ladies of America" from the women of Dunmanway:
"Oh! that our American sisters could see the labourers on our roads, able-bodied men, scarcely clad, famishing with hunger, with despair in their once cheerful faces, staggering at their work ... oh! that they could see the dead father, mother or child, lying coffinless and hear the screams of the survivors around them, caused not by sorrow, but by the agony of hunger."
In the early 1850s, following the migrations and evictions which characterized the famine's upheavals, more than seventy percent of Dunmanway residents did not own any land.
On 28 November 1921, during the Irish War of Independence (1919–1921), seventeen British Auxiliary Division troops were killed by the Irish Republican Army at the Kilmichael Ambush (near Dunmanway). The subsequent sacking and burning of the city of Cork by the British forces is thought to be linked to the Kilmichael Ambush. On 15 December 1920, an Auxiliary shot dead the local priest, Canon Magner, for refusing to toll his church's bells on Armistice Day; a local boy, Tadhg Crowley, was also killed in an apparently random incident. There were numerous other actions in and around Dunmanway during the war (see Chronology of the Irish War of Independence). In addition, after a truce was declared in July 1921, the local IRA killed a number of alleged informers. Controversy continues in particular over the killing of ten men (including three residents of Dunmanway) in the spring of 1922, all of whom were Protestants (see Dunmanway killings).
As a person living in Ireland is called Irish, or a person from County Cork is Corkonian, a person living in Dunmanway is known as a Doheny. This is as the local Gaelic Athletic Association club is known as "The Dohenys" in honour of Michael Doheny, a member of the Young Ireland nationalist movement who lived in the area for a short period while on the run from British forces.
Immigration to the town in recent years[when?] has caused a population growth. The population grew 52% in the period from 2002 to 2006. The 2002 census reported that there were 1,532 people living in Dunmanway and the 2006 census reported that the town had a population of 2,328.
Immigration to the town and surrounding areas began in the 1970s - in particular from the United Kingdom, Germany and the Netherlands. Immigration from these countries is still going on, including by people who are attracted to the relaxed pace of life in West Cork.[tone] Into the 2000s, immigration to Dunmanway took on a greater pace as the Celtic Tiger economy began to take hold. Today in Dunmanway there are Polish, Latvians and British inhabitants. In addition to these there are small groups of Czechs, Hungarians, Estonians, Germans, Austrian, Dutch and Chinese.
Dunmanway is predominantly Roman Catholic with a large Protestant minority and a small Neopagan minority. There are two different Protestant denominations in the town, namely the Church of Ireland and Methodism, the former being larger. While still majority Catholic, the rural area around Dunmanway has one of the highest percentage of non-Catholics in the Republic of Ireland and the town acts as an important focal point for this community.
As Christianity is the religion of the vast majority of the town, Christmas and Easter are important times of year in Dunmanway. Many businesses remain closed from Christmas Day for four or five days and then close again for a day or two for New Year's Day. At Easter the case is similar with many businesses closing from Good Friday to Easter Monday. The Corpus Christi procession in June is also a major event for the Catholic faithful.
Dohenys currently compete at the senior grade of the Cork county football championship, and reached the county final in 2006, losing to Nemo Rangers. The club's most famous player is probably Éamonn Young, who captained Cork to victory in the National Football League and the Munster Football Championship in 1952, having also been a part of Cork's All-Ireland-winning team of 1945.
Although the club has historically enjoyed more success in football, Dohenys became Munster Junior B Hurling champions in 2007.
The local soccer club is Dunmanway Town, who play in the Premier Division of the West Cork League. In June 2009, it was sensationally announced that the world-famous Liverpool F.C. had agreed to visit Dunmanway to play Town in a pre-season friendly on 6 August 2009. Liverpool, fielding players from their reserve and youth teams (the home side supplemented their line-up with a number of players from prominent Cork-based clubs like Avondale United and Cobh Ramblers F.C.) won the game by one goal to nil in front of 6,800 fans, and Gardaí estimated that more than 15,000 people visited Dunmanway on the day to catch a glimpse of the Liverpool stars of the future.
Other sports clubs in the town include rugby, athletics, pitch and putt and badminton. Dunmanway has also been home to an indoor heated swimming pool for many years, with the 25 metre pool being the only public swimming pool in the West Cork area.
Like other parts of County Cork, road bowling is a popular sport in the surrounding area, and the All-Ireland road bowling championships took place in Dunmanway in July 2011. Dunmanway is fondly known as 'The Volleyball Capital of Ireland.'
Today, the construction industry and agriculture play a large part in the economic environment of the town.
Between 1975 and 1999, Swedish multinational firm Mölnlycke Health Care operated a manufacturing facility in Dunmanway. The plant employed over 250 people at its peak.
A later scion of the Cox family, Richard, heard that a preacher allied to John Wesley was due to visit the town and decided to give him a ducking in the local lake. To practice he went out in a boat but fell into the water and was drowned. The event was commemorated by the following verse:
- "'Tis there the lake is,
- Where the duck and the drake is,
- And 'tis there the crane can have his fine feed of frogs.
- When night come's round it,
- The spirits surround it,
- For in it was drownded Sir Richard Cox."
- Sam Maguire, sportsperson / Irish republican
- Con O'Kelly, wrestler, gold medalist at 1908 Olympics
- Timothy J. Murphy, Labour Party politician and Minister for Local Government in the First Inter-Party Government
- Michael McCarthy, Labour Party politician and former member of Dáil Éireann
- George Beamish, rugby player for Ireland and the British and Irish Lions in the 1920s and '30s
- Victor Beamish RAF ace fighter pilot in WWII
- All-Ireland winners within various GAA codes include Éamonn Young (gaelic football), Jim Young and Kevin Murray (hurling), Aoife Murray (camogie)
- John McCarthy, athlete, silver medalist in discus at 2004 Paralympic Games
- Sports Personality, TV Reality Star, Lee Carsley was a visitor to the town as a youth and qualified to play for the Republic of Ireland by virtue of his grandmother being from Dunmanway
- Darren Sweetnam, former Cork Hurler and Current Munster Rugby Player
- "Census 2016 - Small Area Population Statistics (SAPMAP Area) - Settlements - Dunmanway". Census 2016. Central Statistics Office.
- Census for post 1821 figures.
- Online Historical Population Reports
- NISRA - Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency Archived February 17, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- Lee, JJ (1981). "Pre-famine". In Goldstrom, J. M.; Clarkson, L. A. Irish Population, Economy, and Society: Essays in Honour of the Late K. H. Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
- Mokyr, Joel; O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). "New Developments in Irish Population History, 1700-1850". The Economic History Review. 37 (4): 473–488. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0289.1984.tb00344.x.[dead link]
- "Census 2011 - SAPMAP data - Settlement Dunmanway (CSO Area Code ST 18024)". Census 2011. CSO. 2011. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
- Ó Coileáin, Barra (2004). "Chairman's Address". Dunmanway Doings. 1 (1): v.
- "Dunmanway". logainm.ie. Retrieved 18 May 2014.
- British Museum Collection
- Burke, Terence (1974). "County Cork in the Eighteenth Century". Geographical Review. American Geographical Society. 64 (1): 61–81. doi:10.2307/213794. JSTOR 213794.
- Cousens, S.H. (1960). "The Regional Pattern of Emigration during the Great Irish Famine, 1846-51". Transactions and Papers (Institute of British Geographers). Blackwell Publishing. 28 (28): 119–134. doi:10.2307/621118. JSTOR 621118.
- Kinealy, Christine (1997). A Death-Dealing Famine: The Great Hunger in Ireland. London: Pluto Press. p. 115. ISBN 0-7453-1074-5.
- Cousens, S.H. (1961). "Emigration and Demographic Change in Ireland, 1851-1861". The Economic History Review. 14 (2): 275–288. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0289.1961.tb00051.x.
- "Census 2016 Sapmap Area: Electoral Division Dunmanway North". census.cso.ie. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
- "Census 2016 Sapmap Area: Electoral Division Dunmanway South". census.cso.ie. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
- "ArcGIS Web Application". airomaps.nuim.ie. Retrieved 25 November 2017. using "Religion > % Roman Catholic" layer.
- "Tiny club tackles Liverpool ticket frenzy". Irish Examiner. 2009-06-30. Retrieved 2009-07-02.
- "Dunmanway dances to the Mersey beat". Irish Independent. 2009-08-07. Retrieved 2009-08-13.
- "No fairytale ending but display just the job for part-timers". Irish Independent. 2009-08-07. Retrieved 2009-08-13.
- "Munster 100 race returns after 18 year hiatus".
- "Lightning Sprint in Dunmanway". Archived from the original on 2012-08-25.
- "Dunmanway station" (PDF). Railscot - Irish Railways. Retrieved 2007-10-13.
- Bennett's History of Bandon at corkancestors.com
- A Topographical Dictionary of Ireland by Samuel Lewis (1837) at Library Ireland
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