|Target||IL4 receptor alpha|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||146.9 kg/mol g·mol−1|
Dupilumab, sold under the trade name Dupixent, is a monoclonal antibody designed for the treatment of allergic diseases such as eczema (atopic dermatitis). Side effects include allergic reactions, cold sores, and inflammation of the cornea. It was developed by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals and Sanofi Genzyme. It received FDA approval for moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis in 2017. As of 2017 it costs about 37,000 USD per year.
It appears to be useful for moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis for which it is approved in the United States. It is also being evaluated for treatment of persistent asthma in adults and adolescents.
There is one reported case of Dupilumab triggering hair growth in a patient with complete hair loss. This is being investigated as an unintended, but positive side effect.
Mechanism of action
Dupilumab binds to the alpha subunit of the interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4Rα), making it a receptor antagonist. Through blockade of IL-4Rα, dupilumab modulates signaling of both the interleukin 4 and interleukin 13 pathways. In clinical trials, patients saw decreased levels of Th2 bio-markers.
As per the FDA, dupilumab was manufactured in accordance with current GMP. In October 2016, Regeneron posted a phase III CHRONOS trial, contrasting dupilumab with topical corticosteroids. The study showed that in conjunction with topical corticosteroids, people had a larger decrease in symptoms than steroids alone.
Phase III SOLO 1 and SOLO 2 trials were also performed, which evaluated the efficacy of dupilumab in combination with topical corticosteroids. In these trials 38% and 36% of patients respectively, met the primary efficacy goal of the trial, compared to 8% and 10% under placebo.
Phase II trials for asthma treatment showed increased lung function for patients, showing increased levels of forced expiratory volume.
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