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Monoclonal antibody
TypeWhole antibody
TargetIL4 receptor alpha
Clinical data
Trade namesDupixent
Routes of
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
CAS Number
  • none
Chemical and physical data
Molar mass146.9 kg/mol g·mol−1

Dupilumab, sold under the trade name Dupixent, is a monoclonal antibody used for allergic diseases such as eczema (atopic dermatitis) and nasal polyps which result in chronic sinusitis.[1][2][3]

Side effects include allergic reactions, cold sores, and inflammation of the cornea.[2] It was developed by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals and Sanofi Genzyme.[4][5] It received approval from the United States Food and Drug Administration for moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis in 2017.[2] As of 2019 it costs about US$46,000 per year.[6]

Medical uses[edit]

Dupilumab appears to be useful for moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis for which it is approved in the United States.[7][8] It is also being evaluated for treatment of persistent asthma in adults and adolescents.[8][9] In October 2019, the European Commission (EC) approved Dupixent in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP).[10]

Side effects[edit]

Dupilumab can cause several side effects including allergic reactions, conjunctivitis, and keratitis.[2]

There is one reported case of dupilumab triggering hair growth in a patient with complete hair loss.[11] This is being investigated as an unintended, but positive side effect.


Mechanism of action[edit]

Dupilumab binds to the alpha subunit of the interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4Rα), making it a receptor antagonist.[12] Through blockade of IL-4Rα, dupilumab modulates signaling of both the interleukin 4 and interleukin 13 pathways. In clinical trials, patients saw decreased levels of Th2 bio-markers.[13]


Dupilumab shows a non-linear rate in regard to the target.[13] Dupilumab is also reported to have a bioavailability of 64%, with the average concentration occurring one week after injection.[13]


Development of dupilumab was a joint effort by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals and Sanofi, the latter of which provided 130 million dollars to Regeneron for research and development towards monoclonal antibodies.[14]

The United States Food and Drug Administration granted it priority review status.[15][16] On March 28, 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved dupilumab injection to treat adults with moderate-to-severe eczema.[2]

In October 2016, Regeneron completed a phase III trial comparing dupilumab with topical corticosteroids, in which subjects had a larger decrease in symptoms with both duplimab and topical steroids than with steroids alone.[17]

Phase III studies were also performed to evaluate the efficacy of dupilumab in combination with topical corticosteroids. In these trials 38% and 36% of patients respectively, met the primary efficacy goal of the trial, compared to 8% and 10% under placebo.[13]

Phase II trials for asthma treatment showed increased lung function for patients, showing increased forced expiratory volume.[13]


  1. ^ "Statement On A Nonproprietary Name Adopted By The USAN Council - Dupilumab", American Medical Association.[dead link]
  2. ^ a b c d e "FDA approves new eczema drug Dupixent". FDA.
  3. ^ "FDA approves first treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps". FDA. 26 June 2019. Retrieved 27 June 2019.
  4. ^ "Sanofi - Commercial collaboration". Sanofi. Retrieved 2017-03-09.
  5. ^ "A powerful research and development engine". www.regeneron.com. Retrieved 2017-03-09.
  6. ^ Thomas, Katie (28 March 2017). "Severe Eczema Drug Is Approved by F.D.A.; Price Tag Is $37,000 a Year". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
  7. ^ Kraft, M; Worm, M (April 2017). "Dupilumab in the treatment of moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis". Expert Review of Clinical Immunology. 13 (4): 301–310. doi:10.1080/1744666X.2017.1292134. PMID 28165826.
  8. ^ a b Humbert, M; Busse, W; Hanania, NA (20 October 2017). "Controversies and opportunities in severe asthma". Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine. 24 (1): 83–93. doi:10.1097/MCP.0000000000000438. PMID 29059087.
  9. ^ Castro, Mario; Corren, Jonathan; Pavord, Ian D.; et al. (2018-06-28). "Dupilumab Efficacy and Safety in Moderate-to-Severe Uncontrolled Asthma". New England Journal of Medicine. 378 (26): 2486–2496. doi:10.1056/nejmoa1804092. ISSN 0028-4793. PMID 29782217.
  10. ^ Regeneron reports third quarter 2019: https://investor.regeneron.com/news-releases/news-release-details/regeneron-reports-third-quarter-2019-financial-and-operating
  11. ^ Penzi, Lauren R.; Yasuda, Mariko; Manatis-Lornell, Athena; Hagigeorges, Dina; Senna, Maryanne M. (2018). "Hair Regrowth in a Patient with Long-standing Alopecia Totalis and Atopic Dermatitis Treated with Dupilumab". JAMA Dermatology. 154 (11): 1358–1360. doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2018.2976. PMID 30304403.
  12. ^ Wenzel, Sally; Ford, Linda; Pearlman, David; et al. (2013). "Dupilumab in Persistent Asthma with Elevated Eosinophil Levels". New England Journal of Medicine. 368 (26): 2455–2466. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1304048. PMID 23688323.
  13. ^ a b c d e Shirley, Matt (2017-07-01). "Dupilumab: First Global Approval". Drugs. 77 (10): 1115–1121. doi:10.1007/s40265-017-0768-3. ISSN 0012-6667. PMID 28547386.
  14. ^ "SEC 10-Q Filing of Regeneron". SEC.gov. 2017-06-30. Retrieved 2017-10-20.
  15. ^ "Novel Biologic Dupilumab Improves Eczema Symptoms". Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  16. ^ Walker, Joseph (2016-05-30). "New Eczema Treatments Could Be Available Soon". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2016-05-31.
  17. ^ Hamilton, Jennifer D.; Ungar, Benjamin; Guttman-Yassky, Emma (2015). "Drug evaluation review: dupilumab in atopic dermatitis". Immunotherapy. 7 (10): 1043–1058. doi:10.2217/imt.15.69. PMID 26598956.