|Target||Interleukin 4 (IL4) receptor alpha|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||146898.98 g·mol−1|
Dupilumab, sold under the brand name Dupixent, is a monoclonal antibody blocking interleukin 4 and interleukin 13, used for allergic diseases such as eczema (atopic dermatitis), asthma and nasal polyps which result in chronic sinusitis. It is also used for the treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis.
The most common side effects reported by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) include injection site reactions, upper respiratory tract infections, joint pain, and herpes viral infections. The most common side effects reported by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) include injection-site reactions (such as redness, swelling including due to fluid build-up, itching and pain), conjunctivitis (redness and discomfort in the eye) including conjunctivitis due to allergy, joint pain, cold sores, and increased blood levels of a type of white blood cell called eosinophils. It was developed by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals and Sanofi Genzyme. It received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis in 2017, and for asthma in 2018. The FDA considers it to be a first-in-class medication.
Dupilumab is the first treatment for eosinophilic esophagitis approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder in which eosinophils, a type of white blood cell, are found in the tissue of the esophagus. In adults and adolescents with eosinophilic esophagitis, common symptoms include difficulty swallowing, difficulty eating, and food getting stuck in the esophagus. Dupilumab is a monoclonal antibody that acts to inhibit part of the inflammatory pathway.
Dupilumab is indicated for the treatment of moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis, moderate-to-severe asthma, and for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP).
In May 2022, the indication for dupilumab was updated to treat eosinophilic esophagitis in people aged 12 years of age and older weighing at least 40 kilograms (88 lb).
Dupilumab can cause allergic reactions, conjunctivitis, and keratitis and, due to its immunosuppressive effects, reactivation of cold sores. In clinical trials, people receiving dupilumab had decreased levels of T helper cells.
Mechanism of action
Dupilumab binds to the alpha subunit of the interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4Rα), making it a receptor antagonist. Through blockade of IL-4Rα, dupilumab modulates signaling of both the interleukin 4 and interleukin 13 pathways.
Regeneron Pharmaceuticals and Sanofi Genzyme jointly developed dupilumab, the latter of which provided 130 million dollars to Regeneron for research and development towards monoclonal antibodies. Phase II trials for asthma treatment showed increased lung function with increased forced expiratory volume for patients.
In October 2016, Regeneron completed a phase III trial comparing dupilumab with topical corticosteroids, in which subjects had a larger decrease in symptoms with both dupilumab and topical steroids than with steroids alone. In these trials 38% and 36% of patients respectively, met the primary efficacy goal of the trial, compared to 8% and 10% under placebo.
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted the application for dupilumab priority review status and in March 2017, the FDA approved dupilumab injection to treat adults with moderate-to-severe eczema.
The efficacy and safety of dupilumab in eosinophilic esophagitis was studied in a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter, placebo-controlled trial, that included two 24-week treatment periods (Part A and Part B) that were conducted independently in separate groups of participants. In Part A and Part B, participants received either placebo or 300 milligrams of dupilumab every week. The two primary measurements of efficacy were the proportion of participants who achieved a certain level of reduced eosinophils in the esophagus at week 24, as determined by assessing participants' esophageal tissue under a microscope, and the change in the participant-reported Dysphagia Symptom Questionnaire (DSQ) score from baseline to week 24. The DSQ is a questionnaire designed to measure difficulty swallowing associated with eosinophilic esophagitis, with total scores ranging from 0 to 84; higher DSQ scores indicate worse symptoms.
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