Duqqa

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for the Buddhist concept see Dukkha, for the exterior seat see Dakkah
Duqqa
Dukkah.jpg
Type Dip
Course Side dish or hors d'œuvre
Place of origin Egypt
Region or state Egypt and Gaza Strip
Main ingredients Herbs, nuts (probably hazelnut), spices
Cookbook: Duqqa  Media: Duqqa

Duqqa,[spelling 1] du'ah, do'a,[1] or dukkah (Egyptian Arabic: دقة‎‎  pronounced [ˈdæʔʔæ]) is an Egyptian condiment consisting of a mixture of herbs, nuts (usually hazelnut), and spices. It is typically used as a dip with bread[2] or fresh vegetables for an hors d'œuvre.[3] Pre-made versions of duqqa can be bought in the spice markets of Cairo, with the simplest version being crushed mint, salt and pepper which are sold in paper cones.[4] The packaged variety is found in markets that is composed of parched wheat flour mixed with cumin and caraway.[5]

The word is derived from the Arabic for "to pound"[6][7] since the mixture of spices and nuts are pounded together after being dry roasted to a texture that is neither powdered nor paste-like. The actual composition of the spice mix can vary from family to family,[8] vendor to vendor though there are common ingredients, such as sesame, coriander, cumin, salt and pepper. Reference to a 19th-century text[9] lists marjoram, mint, zaatar and chickpeas as further ingredients that can be used in the mixture. A report from 1978[10][11] indicates that even further ingredients can be used, such as nigella, millet flour and dried cheese. Some modern variants include pine nuts,[12] pumpkin seeds[13] or sunflower seeds.[14]

Duqqa is now becoming popular in some countries outside Egypt. In the United States it has gained exposure through such TV shows as Top Chef, Chopped and Iron Chef America. In Australia several companies now make it in a variety of flavours. It has become popular in the past ten years, probably due to recent Lebanese and Arabic immigration as well as television cooking shows such as SBS Food. It can be found in supermarkets, specialty stores and many farmers' markets.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Also spelled: dakka, dukkah, dukka

References[edit]

External links[edit]

  1. ^ Roden, Claudia (2008). The New Book of Middle Eastern Food. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 55. ISBN 9780307558565. Retrieved 2 July 2016. 
  2. ^ Sortun, Ana (2013). Spice: Flavors of the Eastern Mediterranean. Harper Collins. p. 6. ISBN 9780062336514. Retrieved 2 July 2016. 
  3. ^ Malouf, Greg and Lucy Malouf (1999). Artichoke to Za'atar: Modern Middle Eastern Food. University of California Press. p. 278. ISBN 9780520254138. Retrieved 2 July 2016. 
  4. ^ Davidson, Alan (1999). The Oxford Companion to Food (2014 ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 269. ISBN 9780191040726. Retrieved 2 July 2016. 
  5. ^ Davidson, Alan (1999). The Oxford Companion to Food (2014 ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 269. ISBN 9780191040726. Retrieved 2 July 2016. 
  6. ^ Green, Aliza (2015). The Magic of Spice Blends: A Guide to the Art, Science, and Lore of Combining Flavors. Quarry Books. p. 34. ISBN 9781631590740. Retrieved 2 July 2016. 
  7. ^ Marks, Gil (2010). Encyclopedia of Jewish Food. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 672 pages. ISBN 9780544186316. Retrieved 3 July 2016. 
  8. ^ Roden, Claudia (2008). The New Book of Middle Eastern Food. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 55. ISBN 9780307558565. Retrieved 2 July 2016. 
  9. ^ Lane, Edward William (1908). The manners & customs of the modern Egyptians. London; New York: J.M. Dent & Co.; E.P. Dutton & Co. p. 137. Retrieved 2 July 2016. 
  10. ^ Davidson, Alan (1999). The Oxford Companion to Food (2014 ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 269. ISBN 9780191040726. Retrieved 2 July 2016. 
  11. ^ Landry, Robert (1978). Guide culinaire des épices aromates et condiments. Verviers, Belgique: Marabout. 
  12. ^ Zizka, Maria. "Cooking from the World Pantry: Dukkah". KCET. KCETLink Media Group. Retrieved 3 July 2016. 
  13. ^ Shulman, Martha Rose. "Pumpkin Seed Dukkah". New York Times: Cooking. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 3 July 2016. 
  14. ^ Ottolenghi, Yotam (3 June 2011). "Yotam Ottolenghi's butter bean purée with dukkah recipe". Guardian News and Media Limited. The Guardian. Retrieved 2 July 2016.