Durga (raga)

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Durga
ThaatBilaval
TypeAudava
Time of dayNight, 9-12[1]
ArohanaSa Re Ma Pa Dha Sa
AvarohanaSa Dha Pa Ma Re Sa
PakadRe Ma Pa Dha, Ma Re
VadiMa
SamavadiSa
SimilarShuddha Saveri

Durga is a raga in Hindustani Classical music. It shares some features with Shuddha Saveri of Carnatic music (such as the note positions), but is significantly different from it in terms of the sancharas of the raga.

Unless mentioned otherwise, notes refer to the concept of notes in Indian classical music, called ‘swara’ in Hindustani. Durga raga evokes the sringara rasa - romantic love.[2]

Technical description[edit]

Feature Detail Notes
Jati / Nature Audav-Audav 5 Notes on both Aaroh and Avroh
Aroha Sa Re Ma Pa Dha Sa सा रे म प ध सा^
Avaroha Sa Dha Ma, Pa Dha Ma, Re Dha. Sa सा^ ध म, प ध म, रे ध_ सा Pancham should not be a resting note in Avroh[3]
Pakad Re Ma Pa Dha, Ma Pa Dha, Ma Re, Sa Re Dha. Sa
Vadi Ma
Samvadi Sa
Poorvang-Uttarang Poorvang The lower half of the saptak (octave) i.e. S R G M are present.
Thaat Bilawal

Notes and Features[edit]

  1. All swaras used are suddha
  2. Gandhar and Nishad are not used.

Example Composition[edit]

R m P D ; P D m ; m P D D m ; D m P D S' ; D D S' S' D D m; m P D ; m R, D S; Here m is Shuddha Madhyam, M is Tivra Madhyam but this is not used in Durga at all.

Samay (Time)[edit]

Second Prahar of night : 9:00 p.m. to midnight (nishitha)

Comparable to[edit]

Malhar[edit]

Durga has the same notes as Malhar, another popular raag and one of old pedigree. The aural experience of both are significantly different. Technically, they are made apart by the use of rishabh (Re). Durga is also readily distinguished by its salient use of the phrase Sa Re Dha Sa

1) Common phrase Re Pa, distinguished by the use of Re
Both Durga and Malhar have the Re Pa pairing (sangati), however, the Re Pa cohort in Malhar involves a repition of Re twice or thrice. More importantly the Re has a kaṇ of shuddha madhyam. (ma)

  • Malhar: Ma Re Re Re[ma] Pa
  • Durga: Ma Pa Dha Sa’ Re Dha Pa Dha Ma Re Pa.

Here, in Malhar, the transition between Re to Pa, the Re has a kaṇ of ma, and is not independently pronounced. The ma is shown stuck to Re in square brackets. Stylistically, the duplication of ‘Re’ is also noted.

2) Different phrases
Also present in the pakad of the raag, Sa Re, Dha Sa is the quintessential phrase of Durga, which is not present in Malhar. (dha denotes dhaivat (dha) of the lower octave i.e. mandra saptak) [4]

Jaldhar Kedar[edit]

Jaldhar Kedar is a variant of, the major raag Kedar , and a part of the raagang of its namesake.

Film Songs[edit]

Bollywood Songs[edit]

  1. Sawan ka Mahina-Milan(1967)

Language:Tamil[edit]

Song Movie Composer Singer
Sithaye Ye Sithaye Sivakavi Papanasam Sivan M. K. Thyagaraja Bhagavathar
Vaadikkai Maranthathum Kalyana Parisu A. M. Rajah A. M. Rajah, P. Susheela
Poonthendral Kaatrraga Aval Oru Kavarimaan R. Ramanujam Malaysia V. Sarangapani, P. Susheela
Radha Radha Nee Enge Meendum Kokila Illayaraja S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, S. Janaki
Kovilmani Osai Kizhakke Pogum Rail Malaysia Vasudevan, S. Janaki
Kadhal Mayakam Pudhumai Penn P. Jayachandran,Sunandha
Rettai Killigal Ore Oru Gramathiley K.J. Yesudas, K.S. Chitra
Malargalil Adum ilamai Kalyanaraman S. P. Sailaja
Asai Kiliyey Naan Solli Theertha Karaiyinile Mano
Sithakathi pookale Rajakumaran S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, K.S. Chitra
Nattu Vacha Roja Aranmanai Kili P. Susheela
Manamagale Manamagale Thevar Magan Minmini, Swarnalatha,Sindhuja
Sandiyare Sandiyare Virumaandi Shreya Ghoshal
Maanada Kodi Muthal Vasantham S. Janaki
Unakagave Naan Uyir Vazhigiren Rasigan Oru Rasigai Raveendran
En uyir Thozhiye Kangalal Kaidhu Sei A. R. Rahman Unni Menon, Chinmayi
Sollitharavaa Sollitharavaa Majaa Vidyasagar Madhu Balakrishnan, Sadhana Sargam
Athikaalaiyil Sevalai Nee Varuvai Ena S. A. Rajkumar P. Unnikrishnan, Sujatha
Garuda Garuda Natpukkaga Deva Krishnaraj, Sujatha
Semeena Vinmeena Anantha Poongatre Hariharan
O Maha Zeeya Thamizh Padam Kannan Hariharan, Shweta

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bor, Joep; Rao, Suvarnalata (1999). The Raga Guide: A Survey of 74 Hindustani Ragas. Nimbus Records with Rotterdam Conservatory of Music. p. 66. ISBN 9780954397609.
  2. ^ Yagnik, Hasu (2013). Shastriya Raag Darshan. Gurjar Granthratna Karyalay. ISBN 978-81-8480-826-1.
  3. ^ http://www.tanarang.com/english/durga_eng.htm
  4. ^ Jha, Ramashreya; P Parrikar, Rajan. "Interview with R. Jha conducted by S.L. Kandara, All India Radio, Allahabad, date of broadcast unknown". parrikar.org/hindustani/malhars/. Retrieved 10 August 2020.

External links[edit]