Vijayadashami

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Vijayadashami
Navratri Navaratri festival preparations and performance arts collage.jpg
Vijayadasami reveres Durga's and Rama's victory over evil depending on the region.[1]
Also calledDashahra, Dasara, Navaratri, Dashain
Observed byHindus
TypeReligious, Cultural
SignificanceCelebrates the victory of good over evil
CelebrationsMarks the end of Durga Puja and Ramlila
Observancespandals (stages), plays, community gathering, recitation of scriptures, puja,fasting, immersion of idols or burning of Ravana.
DateAshvin (September or October)
2020 date25 October (Sunday)[2][3]
Sri Lanka 24 October 2020
2021 date15 October (Fri)[4]

Vijayadashami (IAST: Vijayadaśamī) also known as Dussehra, Dasara or Dashain, is a major Hindu festival celebrated at the end of Navaratri every year. It is observed on the tenth day in the Hindu calendar month of Ashvin, the seventh month of the Hindu Luni-Solar Calendar, which typically falls in the Gregorian months of September and October.[5][6][7]

Vijayadashami is observed for different reasons and celebrated differently in various parts of the Indian subcontinent.[8][1][9][5] In the southern, eastern, northeastern, and some northern states of India, Vijayadashami marks the end of Durga Puja, remembering goddess Durga's victory over the buffalo demon Mahishasura to restore and protect dharma.[5][10][11] In the northern, central and western states, the festival is synonymously called Dussehra (also spelled Dasara, Dashahara). In these regions, it marks the end of Ramlila and remembers god Rama's victory over the Ravan. On the very same occasion, Arjuna alone decimated more than 1,000,000 soldiers and defeated all Kuru warriors including Bhishma, Drona, Ashwatthama, Karna and Kripa, a significant example of victory of good (Dharma) over evil (Adharma). Alternatively, it marks a reverence for one of the aspects of goddess Devi, such as Durga or Saraswati.[1][6][7]

Vijayadashami celebrations include processions to a river or ocean front that involve carrying clay statues of Durga[12], Lakshmi, Saraswati, Ganesha and Kartikeya, accompanied by music and chants, after which the images are immersed in the water for dissolution and farewell. Elsewhere, on Dasara, towering effigies of Ravan, symbolising evil, are burnt with fireworks, marking evil's destruction. The festival also starts the preparations for Diwali, the important festival of lights, which is celebrated twenty days after Vijayadashami.[13][14][1]

Etymology[edit]

Vijayadashami (Devanagari: विजयदशमी ) (Odia : ଵିଜୟା ଦଶମୀ) (Kannada: ವಿಜಯದಶಮಿ) (Tamil: விஜயதசமி) (Telugu: విజయదశమి) (Malayalam: വിജയദശമി) (Bengali: বিজয়া দশমী) a composite of two words "Vijaya" (विजय) and "Dashami" (दशमी), which respectively mean "victory"[15] and "tenth,"[16] connoting the festival on the tenth day celebrating the victory of good over evil.[1][9][17] The same Hindu festival-related term, however, takes different forms in different regions of India and Nepal, as well as among Hindu minorities found elsewhere.[18]

According to James Lochtefeld, the word Dussehra (Devanagari: दशहरा) (Kannada: ದಸರಾ ಹಬ್ಬ) is a variant of Dashahara which is a compound Sanskrit word composed of "dasham"(दशम) and "ahar" (अहर), respectively meaning "10" and "day".[19][20][21]

Ramayana[edit]

Ravana kidnaps Sita and takes her to his kingdom in Lanka (present day Sri Lanka). Rama asks Ravana to release her, but Ravana refuses; the situation escalates and leads to war. After performing severe penance for ten thousand years, Ravana receives a boon from the creator-god Brahma; he could henceforth not be killed by gods, demons, or spirits. He is portrayed as a powerful demon king who disturbs the penances of rishis. Lord Vishnu incarnates as the human Rama to defeat and kill him, thus circumventing the boon given by Lord Brahma. A deadly and fierce battle occurs between Rama and Ravana in which Rama kills Ravana and ends his evil rule. Ravana has ten heads; the killing of one who has ten heads is called Dusshera. Finally, Dharma was established on the Earth because of Rama's victory over Ravana. Thus, this festival is celebrated, reminding the victory of Good over Evil.[22]

Mahabharata[edit]

In the Mahabharata, on the same day Arjuna defeated the Kauravas that included warriors like Bhishma, Drona, Ashwathama and Karna.[23]

Regional variations[edit]

Northern India[edit]

Dasara is observed with the burning of Ravana effigies.

In most of northern and western India, Dasha-Hara (literally, "ten days") is celebrated in honour of Rama. Thousands of drama-dance-music plays based on the Ramayan and Ramcharitmanas (Ramlila) are performed at outdoor fairs across the land and in temporarily built staging grounds featuring effigies of the demons Ravan, Kumbhakarna and Meghanada. The effigies are burnt on bonfires in the evening of Vijayadashami-Dussehra.[7] While Dussehra is observed on the same day across India, the festivities leading to it vary. In many places, the "Rama Lila," or the brief version of the story of Rama, Sita, and Lakshaman, is enacted over the 9 days before it, but in some cities such as Varanasi the entire story is freely acted out by performance-artists before the public every evening for a month.[21]

The performance arts tradition during the Dussehra festival was inscribed by UNESCO as one of the "Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity" in 2008.[24] The festivities, states UNESCO, include songs, narration, recital and dialogue based on the Hindu text Ramacharitmanas by Tulsidas. It is celebrated across northern India for Dussehra, but particularly in historically important Hindu cities of Ayodhya, Varanasi, Vrindavan, Almora, Satna and Madhubani.[24] The festival and dramatic enactment of the virtues versus vices filled story is organised by communities in hundreds of small villages and towns, attracting a mix of audiences from different social, gender and economic backgrounds. In many parts of India, the audience and villagers join in and participate spontaneously, helping the artists, others helping with stage setup, make-up, effigies, and lights.[24] These arts come to a close on the night of Dussehra, when Rama's victory is celebrated by burning the effigies of evil Ravan and his colleagues.[18]

Himachal Pradesh[edit]

Kullu Dussehra has celebrated in the Kullu valley of Himachal Pradesh and is regionally notable for its large fair and parade witnessed by an estimated half a million people. The festival is a symbol of victory of good over evil by Raghu Nath, and is celebrated like elsewhere in the Indian subcontinent with a procession.[25] The special feature of the Kullu Dussehra procession is the arrival of floats containing deities from different parts of the nearby regions and their journey to Kullu.[26]

Southern India[edit]

Mysore Dasara procession and celebrations in Karnataka are a major tourist attraction.

Vijayadasami is celebrated in a variety of ways in South India.[27] Celebrations range from worshipping Durga, lighting up temples and major forts such as at Mysore, to displaying colourful figurines, known as a golu.[citation needed]

The festival played a historical role in the 14th-century Vijayanagara Empire, where it was called Mahanavami. The Italian traveller Niccolò de' Conti described the festival's intensity and importance as a grandeur religious and martial event with royal support. The event revered Durga as the warrior goddess (some texts refer to her as Chamundeshwari). The celebrations hosted athletic competitions, singing and dancing, fireworks, a pageantry military parade and charitable giving to the public.[28][29]

The city of Mysore has traditionally been a major center of Dasara-Vijayadashami celebrations.[28]

Another significant and notable tradition of several South Indian regions has been the dedication of this festival to Saraswati, the Hindu goddess of knowledge, learning, music, and arts. She is worshipped, along with instruments of one's trade during this festival. In South India, people maintain, clean, and worship their instruments, work tools, and implements of their livelihood during this festival, remembering Goddess Saraswati and Durga.[18]

Kids aged 3–4, who are new to the school, are admitted to school on Vijayadasami Day.[30]

Western India[edit]

In Gujarat, both the goddess Durga and lord Rama are revered for their victory over evil. Fasting and prayers at temples are common. A regional dance called Dandiya Raas, that deploys colourfully decorated sticks, and Garba dancing in traditional dress is a part of the festivities through the night.[31]

The Gondi people instead celebrate Ravan by carrying an image of him riding an elephant and singing praises. They consider Ravan as their ancestor and one of their gods.[32][33]

Colorful floor patterns to mark Vijayadashami.

In Goa, this festival is locally known as Dasro in Konkani, marks Goddess Durga's victory over the demon Mahishasura, concludes the festivities. Insignia known as Taranga play an important role in the festivities, which are sacred umbrellas that symbolise the village deities. At many temples a dance of the Tarangas is held.Oracles are associated with Dasara in Goa. On this day, a ritual called Seemollanghan of the deities is held. For this people follow a token ritual of crossing the border of their village. The icons of deities are carried in a grand procession. The tradition traces its roots to ancient times when kings would cross their kingdom's border to wage war with the neighbouring kingdom. After Seemollanghan, there is a tradition wherein people exchange Aaptyachi pana. These leave symbolise gold and the ritual is a symbolic representation of exchange of gold.[34]

The festival has been historically important in Maharashtra. Shivaji, who challenged the Mughal Empire in the 17th-century and created a Hindu kingdom in western and central India, would deploy his soldiers to assist farmers in cropping lands and providing adequate irrigation to guarantee food supplies. Post monsoons, on Vijayadashami, these soldiers would leave their villages and reassemble to serve in the military, re-arm and obtain their deployment orders, then proceed to the frontiers for active duty.[35][36] In North Maharashtra this festival is known as Dasara, and on this day people wear new clothes, and touch feet of elderly people and deities of the village temple.[37] The deities installed on the first day of Navratri are immersed in water. Observers visit each other and exchange sweets.[38]

Durga image is immersed into river on Vijayadashami in eastern regions of the Indian subcontinent.

In Mewar region of Rajasthan and Gujarat both Durga and Rama have been celebrated on Vijayadashami, and it has been a major festival for Rajput warriors.[28]

Eastern India[edit]

In West Bengal Vijaya Dasami is observed as Bijoya Dashomi, immediately after the day of Dashomi (the tenth day of Nabaratri). It is marked by processions in which clay statues are taken to a river or ocean for a solemn goodbye to Durga. Many mark their faces with vermilion (sindoor) or wear red clothing. It is an emotional day for some devotees, especially the Bengalis, and even for many atheists as the congregation sings goodbye songs.[39][40] When the procession reaches the water, the clay statues of Durga and her four children are immersed; the clay dissolves and they are believed to return to Mount Kailasha with Shiva, and to the cosmos in general. People distribute sweets and gifts, and visit friends and family members.[41] Some communities such as those near Varanasi mark the eleventh day, called ekadashi, by visiting a Durga temple.[42]

Youngsters greet elders and seek blessings on Dashain (Dashami) among the Hindu community in Nepal and Himalayan regions.

Nepal[edit]

In Nepal, Vijayadashami follows the festival of Dashain. Youngsters visit the elders in their family, distant ones come to their native homes, and students visit their school teachers. The elders and teachers welcome the youngsters, mark their foreheads with tika and bless them. The family reveres the Hindu goddess of wealth Lakshmi, hoping for virtuous success and prosperity in the year ahead.[43][44]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Fuller, Christopher John (2004). The Camphor Flame: Popular Hinduism and Society in India. Princeton University Press. pp. 108–109. ISBN 978-0-69112-04-85.
  2. ^ "Dussehra 2020 Date, Time & Significance – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
  3. ^ "Vijayadashami 2020: Vijay Muhurat date, timings and Sindoor Khela". Zee News. 25 October 2020. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  4. ^ "National Portal of India". www.india.gov.in. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  5. ^ a b c Encyclopedia Britannica 2015.
  6. ^ a b James G. Lochtefeld 2002, pp. 212–213, 468–469.
  7. ^ a b c Encyclopedia Britannica Dussehra 2015.
  8. ^ "Happy Dashain 2074". Lumbini Media. 18 September 2017. Retrieved 18 September 2017.
  9. ^ a b James G. Lochtefeld 2002, p. 751.
  10. ^ James G. Lochtefeld 2002, pp. 468–469.
  11. ^ "Dussehra 2020 (Vijayadashami): Story, Ram Setu, Lord Rama & True God". S A NEWS. 25 October 2020. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  12. ^ "Dussehra 2020: Date, Puja Timings, History, Significance and Importance". The Indian Express. 25 October 2020. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  13. ^ Gall, Susan B.; Natividad, Irene (1995). The Asian-American Almanac. Gale Research. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-8103-9193-2.
  14. ^ Singh, Rina (2016). Diwali. Orca. pp. 17–18. ISBN 978-1-4598-1008-2.
  15. ^ "Sanskrit Dictionary for Spoken Sanskrit". spokensanskrit.org. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
  16. ^ "Sanskrit Dictionary for Spoken Sanskrit". spokensanskrit.org. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
  17. ^ "Dussehra 2018: Why is it celebrated? - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  18. ^ a b c Constance Jones & James D. Ryan 2006, pp. 308–309.
  19. ^ "Sanskrit Dictionary for Spoken Sanskrit". spokensanskrit.org. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
  20. ^ "Sanskrit Dictionary for Spoken Sanskrit". spokensanskrit.org. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
  21. ^ a b James G. Lochtefeld 2002, pp. 212–213.
  22. ^ Desk, India com Buzz (26 September 2017). "Dussehra History: Mythology And Story Related To The Festival Of Vijayadashami". India News, Breaking News, Entertainment News | India.com. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  23. ^ "When is Dussehra 2019? History, importance and rituals and facts on why we celebrate Vijayadashmi - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  24. ^ a b c Ramlila, the traditional performance of the Ramayana, UNESCO
  25. ^ Dutta, Sanjay (11 October 2008). "International Dussehra festival kicks-off at Kullu". The Indian Express. Retrieved 3 May 2016.
  26. ^ James G. Lochtefeld 2002, p. 213.
  27. ^ "Navratri celebrations in South India: All you need to know". The Indian Express. 7 October 2019. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  28. ^ a b c Fuller, Christopher John (2004). The Camphor Flame: Popular Hinduism and Society in India. Princeton University Press. pp. 117–119. ISBN 978-0-69112-04-85.
  29. ^ Sivapriyananda, S (1995). Mysore Royal Dasara. Abhinav Publications. pp. 73–75.
  30. ^ "Vijayadasami admissions on in schools despite instructions against mid-year intake". Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  31. ^ Thaker, Aruna; Barton, Arlene (2012). Multicultural Handbook of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics. John Wiley & Sons. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-4051-7358-2.
  32. ^ Asuras? No, Just Indians, Outlook India
  33. ^ Celebrating Ravan, The Hindu
  34. ^ "Dussehra celebrated with religious fervour". Times of India. 7 October 2011.
  35. ^ Mehta, Jaswant Lal (2005). Advanced Study in the History of Modern India 1707–1813. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. pp. 505–509. ISBN 978-1-932705-54-6.
  36. ^ Sabharwal, Gopa (2006). Ethnicity and Class: Social Divisions in an Indian City. Oxford University Press. pp. 123–125. ISBN 978-0-19-567830-7.
  37. ^ Satpathy, Kriti Saraswat (7 October 2016). "Dasara 2016: Dussehra celebration in Maharashtra". India News, Breaking News, Entertainment News | India.com. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  38. ^ Shirgaonkar, Varsha. ""Madhyayugin Mahanavami aani Dasara"." Chaturang, Loksatta (1996).
  39. ^ Hillary Rodrigues 2003, pp. 244–245.
  40. ^ June McDaniel 2004, pp. 168–169.
  41. ^ Hillary Rodrigues 2003, pp. 66–67, 236–241, 246–247.
  42. ^ Hillary Rodrigues 2003, pp. 67–68.
  43. ^ Deep, Dhurba Krishna (1993). Popular Deities, Emblems & Images of Nepal. Nirala. pp. 50–51. ISBN 978-81-85693-25-5.
  44. ^ Thapa, Netra Bahadur; Thapa, D. P. (1969). Geography of Nepal: Physical, Economic, Cultural & Regional. Orient Longmans. pp. 92–93.

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