Jump to content


Coordinates: 51°14′N 6°47′E / 51.233°N 6.783°E / 51.233; 6.783
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Dusseldorf)

Düsseldörp (Low Franconian)
Düsseldörp (Ripuarian)
Dusseldorf at night
nightly view of Düsseldorf with illuminated Rhine Tower and Rheinkniebrücke over the River Rhine
Bridge Girardet
Girardet Bridge
Palace Gardens
Gardens of Benrath Palace
Flag of Düsseldorf
Coat of arms of Düsseldorf
Location of Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf is located in Germany
Düsseldorf is located in North Rhine-Westphalia
Coordinates: 51°14′N 6°47′E / 51.233°N 6.783°E / 51.233; 6.783
StateNorth Rhine-Westphalia
Admin. regionDüsseldorf
Subdivisions10 boroughs, 50 quarters
 • Lord mayor (2020–25) Stephan Keller[1] (CDU)
 • Governing partiesCDU / Greens
 • City217.41 km2 (83.94 sq mi)
38 m (125 ft)
 • City631,217
 • Density2,900/km2 (7,500/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Metro
11,300,000 (Rhine-Ruhr)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
Postal codes
Dialling codes0211, 0203, 02104
Vehicle registrationD
Logo of the city of Düsseldorf

Düsseldorf[a] is the capital city of North Rhine-Westphalia, the most populous state of Germany. It is the second-largest city in the state after Cologne and the sixth-largest city in Germany,[b], with a 2022 population of 629,047.[7]

The Düssel, from which the city and the borough of Düsseltal take their name, divides into four separate branches within the city,[c] each with its own mouth into the Rhine (Lower Rhine). Most of Düsseldorf lies on the right bank of the Rhine, and the city has grown together with Neuss, Ratingen, Meerbusch, Erkrath and Monheim am Rhein. Düsseldorf is the central city of the metropolitan region Rhine-Ruhr, the second biggest metropolitan region by GDP in the European Union, that stretches from Bonn via Cologne and Düsseldorf to the Ruhr (from Duisburg via Essen to Dortmund).

The -dorf suffix means "village" in German (English cognate: thorp); its use is unusual for a settlement as large as Düsseldorf. Linguistically, Düsseldorf is the largest city in the German part of the Low Franconian area, dialects that are closely related to Dutch.

Düsseldorf is an international business and financial centre, renowned for its fashion and trade fairs,[8][9][10] and is headquarters to one Fortune Global 500 and two DAX companies. Messe Düsseldorf organises nearly one fifth of premier trade shows.[11] Düsseldorf Airport is Germany's fourth-busiest airport, serving as the most important international airport for the population of the densely populated Ruhr, Germany's largest urban area.

As second largest city of the Rhineland, Düsseldorf holds Rhenish Carnival celebrations every year in February/March, the Düsseldorf carnival celebrations being the third most popular in Germany after those held in Cologne and Mainz.[12]

There are 22 institutions of higher education in the city including the Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, the university of applied sciences (Hochschule Düsseldorf), the academy of arts (Kunstakademie Düsseldorf, whose members include Joseph Beuys, Emanuel Leutze, August Macke, Gerhard Richter, Sigmar Polke, and Andreas Gursky), and the university of music (Robert-Schumann-Musikhochschule Düsseldorf). The city is also known for its influence on electronic/experimental music (Kraftwerk) and its Japanese community. Düsseldorf is classified as a GaWC Beta+ world city. Mercer's 2012 Quality of Living survey ranked Düsseldorf the sixth most livable city in the world.[13][14]



Early development


When the Roman Empire was strengthening its position throughout Europe, a few Germanic tribes clung on in marshy territory off the eastern banks of the Rhine.[15] In the 7th and 8th centuries, the odd farming or fishing settlement could be found at the point where the small river Düssel flows into the Rhine. It was from such settlements that the city of Düsseldorf grew.

Düsseldorf in 1647
View of Düsseldorf with the church of St. Andrew in the centre, 1667. The architectural elements were painted by Jan van der Heyden and the figures by Adriaen van de Velde.
Bond of the town Düsseldorf, issued 26. July 1899[16]

The first written mention of Düsseldorf (then called Dusseldorp in the local Low Rhenish dialect) dates back to 1135. Under Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa the small town of Kaiserswerth to the north of Düsseldorf became a well-fortified outpost, where soldiers kept a watchful eye on every movement on the Rhine. Kaiserswerth eventually became a suburb of Düsseldorf in 1929.

In 1186, Düsseldorf came under the rule of the Counts of Berg. 14 August 1288 is one of the most important dates in the history of Düsseldorf, the day the sovereign Count Adolf VIII of Berg granted town privileges to the village on the banks of the Düssel. Before this, a bloody struggle for power had taken place between the Archbishop of Cologne and his allies arrayed against the count of Berg and other local powers, culminating in the Battle of Worringen.[citation needed] The Archbishop of Cologne's forces were wiped out by the forces of the count of Berg, who were supported by citizens and farmers of Cologne and Düsseldorf, paving the way for Düsseldorf's elevation to city status, which is commemorated today by a monument on the Burgplatz.

After this battle the relationship between Cologne and Düsseldorf deteriorated, because they were commercial rivals; it is often said that there is a kind of hostility between the citizens of Cologne and Düsseldorf. Today, it finds its expression mainly in a humorous form (especially during the Rhineland Karneval) and in sports.[citation needed]

The state parliament, seen from the top of the Rheinturm
Rheinturm Düsseldorf 70th Anniversary of the NRW state, illumination with Rheinkomet
Various scenes around Düsseldorf in December, 2014

The custom of turning cartwheels is credited to the children of Düsseldorf. There are variations of the origin[citation needed] of the cartwheeling children. Today the symbol (Der Radschläger)[citation needed] represents the story and every year the Düsseldorfers celebrate by having a cartwheeling contest.

A market square sprang up on the banks of the Rhine and the square was protected by city walls on all four sides. In 1380, the dukes of Berg moved their seat to the town and Düsseldorf was made regional capital of the Duchy of Berg. During the following centuries several famous landmarks were built, including the Collegiate Church of St Lambertus [de]. In 1609, the ducal line of the United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg died out, and after a violent struggle over succession, Jülich and Berg fell to the Wittelsbach Counts of Palatinate-Neuburg, who made Düsseldorf their main domicile, even after they inherited the Electorate of the Palatinate, in 1685, becoming now Prince-electors as Electors Palatine.[citation needed]

Under the art-loving Johann Wilhelm II (r. 1690–1716), a vast art gallery, with a huge selection of paintings and sculptures, was housed in the Stadtschloss (city castle). After his death, the city fell on hard times again, especially after Elector Charles Theodore inherited Bavaria and moved the electoral court to Munich. With him he took the art collection, which became part of what is now the Alte Pinakothek in Munich.

Destruction and poverty struck Düsseldorf after the Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon made Berg a Grand Duchy and Düsseldorf its capital. Johann Devaranne, a leader of Solingen's resistance to Napoleon's conscription decrees, was executed here in 1813.

After Napoleon's defeat, the whole Rhineland including Berg was given to the Kingdom of Prussia in 1815. The Rhine Province's parliament was established in Düsseldorf.[when?] By the mid-19th century, Düsseldorf enjoyed a revival thanks to the Industrial Revolution as the city boasted 100,000 inhabitants by 1882; the figure doubled in 1892.

World War I


During World War I the Royal Naval Air Service (RNS) undertook the first Entente strategic bombing missions on 22 September 1914, when it bombed the Zeppelin bases in Düsseldorf.[17]

Weimar Republic


In 1920, Düsseldorf became the centre of the General Strike that grew out of the resistance to the Kapp Putsch. On 15 April 1920, 45 delegates of the German Miners Union were murdered by the Freikorps.[18]

World War II


During World War II, Düsseldorf was the location of a Nazi prison with several forced labour subcamps,[19] five subcamps of the Buchenwald concentration camp for mostly Polish and Soviet prisoners, but also French, Dutch, Belgian, Czech, Italian, Yugoslav,[20] and a camp for Sinti and Romani people (see Romani Holocaust).[21] The Rabbi of the Düsseldorf Jewish Community fled to the Netherlands and died in KZ Auschwitz in 1943.[22]

The city was a target of strategic bombing during World War II, particularly during the RAF bombing campaign in 1943 when over 700 bombers were used in a single night. Raids continued late into the war. As part of the campaign against German oil facilities, the RAF raid of 20–21 February, 1945 on the Rhenania Ossag refinery in the Reisholz district of the city halted oil production there.

The Allied ground advance into Germany reached Düsseldorf in mid-April 1945. The United States 97th Infantry Division easily captured the city on 18 April 1945,[23] after the local German Resistance group launched Aktion Rheinland.

German Federal Republic


In 1946, Düsseldorf was made capital of the new federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. The city's reconstruction proceeded at a frantic pace and the economic transformation guided Düsseldorf's economic growth.[citation needed]



Physical geography

The course of the Düssel from its source in the Düssel Hill Country (Düsselhügelland) (de) through the Neandertal to Düsseldorf, where it forms three bifurcations, dividing into the four branches (from north to south) Kittelbach, Nördliche Düssel, Südliche Düssel and Brückerbach
Düsseldorf skyline

Düsseldorf lies at the centre of the Lower Rhine basin, where the delta of the Düssel flows into the Rhine. The city lies on the east side of the Rhine, except District 4 (Oberkassel, Niederkassel, Heerdt and Lörick). Across the Rhine, the city of Neuss stands on the delta of the Erft. Düsseldorf lies southwest of the Ruhr urban area, and in the middle of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region.

Düsseldorf is built entirely on alluvium, mud, sand, clay and occasionally gravel. The highest point in Düsseldorf is the top of Sandberg in the far eastern part of the city (Hubbelrath borough) at 165 metres (541 ft). The lowest point is at the far northern end in Wittlaer borough where the Schwarzbach enters the Rhine, with an average elevation of 28 metres (92 ft).

Adjacent cities and districts


The following districts and cities border Düsseldorf (clockwise starting from the north): the City of Duisburg, the District of Mettmann (Ratingen, Mettmann, Erkrath, Hilden, Langenfeld, and Monheim), and the District of Neuss (Dormagen, Neuss, and Meerbusch).



The city has an oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb, mild in relation to East Germany).[24] Like the rest of the lower Rhineland, Düsseldorf experiences moderate winters with little snowfall and mild to warm summers. The average annual temperature is 11.0 °C (52 °F) with an average yearly precipitation of 751 millimetres (30 in). The dominant wind direction is from the west with velocities in the range of 3 to 4 m/s (7–9 mph), with gusts of 3.5 −4.8 m/s (8–10.7 mph). The wind is calm (defined as being under 2 m/s or 4.5 mph) about 35% of the time, more frequently at night and in the winter.[25][26]

Climate data for Düsseldorf (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1981–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 16.4
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 6.0
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.4
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 0.5
Record low °C (°F) −20.8
Average precipitation mm (inches) 61.5
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 17.5 15.9 16.1 12.5 13.9 14.1 14.6 14.7 14.2 15.5 17.2 18.8 185.1
Average snowy days (≥ 1.0 cm) 3.4 2.3 0.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.3 1.8 8.5
Average relative humidity (%) 81.6 78.6 73.5 68.2 68.5 69.3 68.8 70.8 76.5 80.5 83.6 84.3 75.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 56.9 73.1 125.0 172.6 202.0 199.3 208.2 193.9 149.5 109.8 62.5 47.1 1,610.6
Source 1: NOAA[27]
Source 2: Deutscher Wetterdienst [28]


Historical population
Population size may be affected by changes in administrative divisions. Source:[29][30]
Largest groups of foreign residents


Nationality Population (31.12.2022)
 Turkey 12,707
 Greece 10,388
 Poland 9,316
 Japan 8,329
 Italy 7,799
 Ukraine 7,566
 Syria 5,230
 Romania 4,856
 Morocco 4,741
 Spain 4,477
 Russia 4,430
 China 4,175
 North Macedonia 3,842
 Croatia 3,720
 France 3,328
 Iran 3,162
 Iraq 2,879
 Netherlands 2,542
 United Kingdom 2,469
 Serbia 2,308

With a population of 653,253 within the city boundaries (31 December 2022),[39] Düsseldorf is Germany's sixth largest city. Its population surpassed the threshold of 100,000 inhabitants during the height of industrialisation in 1882, and peaked at just over 705,000 in 1962. The city then began to lose residents, with many moving into neighbouring municipalities. However, since the late 1990s, the city's population has been slowly rising again.

A total of 109,883[40] (18%) of Düsseldorf's population are foreigners (31 December 2008), the majority of whom come from within Europe (81,742). The largest national minorities are Turks, Greeks, and Poles. Düsseldorf and its surroundings have the third-largest Japanese community in Europe and the largest in Germany (about 11,000 people).[41][42]

By 2019, the foreign population of Düsseldorf would grow to 152,255, or 23.6% of the population.[43] 272,982 people, or 42.6% of residents had a migration background as of 2019.[44]

Düsseldorf has the third-largest Jewish community in Germany, with about 7,000 members.[45][46][47]





Since 1975, Düsseldorf is divided into ten administrative boroughs. Each borough (Stadtbezirk) has its own elected borough council (Bezirksvertretung) and its own borough mayor (Bezirksvorsteher). The borough councils are advisory only. Each borough is further subdivided into quarters (Stadtteile). There are 50 quarters in Düsseldorf.[48]

Borough 1 (Stadtbezirk 1)
Altstadt, Carlstadt, Derendorf, Golzheim, Pempelfort, Stadtmitte
Borough 2 (Stadtbezirk 2)
Düsseltal, Flingern-Nord, Flingern-Süd
Borough 3 (Stadtbezirk 3)
Bilk, Flehe, Friedrichstadt, Hafen, Hamm, Oberbilk, Unterbilk, Volmerswerth
Borough 4 (Stadtbezirk 4)
Heerdt, Lörick, Niederkassel, Oberkassel
Borough 5 (Stadtbezirk 5)
Angermund, Kaiserswerth, Kalkum, Lohausen, Stockum, Wittlaer
Borough 6 (Stadtbezirk 6)
Lichtenbroich, Mörsenbroich, Rath, Unterrath
Borough 7 (Stadtbezirk 7)
Gerresheim, Grafenberg, Hubbelrath, Knittkuhl, Ludenberg
Borough 8 (Stadtbezirk 8)
Eller, Lierenfeld, Unterbach, Vennhausen
Borough 9 (Stadtbezirk 9)
Benrath, Hassels, Himmelgeist, Holthausen, Itter, Reisholz, Urdenbach, Wersten
Borough 10 (Stadtbezirk 10)
Garath, Hellerhof


Results of the second round of the 2020 mayoral election

The current Mayor of Düsseldorf is Stephan Keller of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), who was elected in 2020.

The most recent mayoral election was held on 13 September 2020, with a runoff held on 27 September, and the results were as follows:

Candidate Party First round Second round
Votes % Votes %
Stephan Keller Christian Democratic Union 83,425 34.1 118,308 56.0
Thomas Geisel Social Democratic Party 64,203 26.3 92,999 44.0
Stefan Engstfeld Alliance 90/The Greens 42,463 17.4
Marie-Agnes Strack-Zimmermann Free Democratic Party 30,584 12.5
Florian Josef Hoffmann Alternative for Germany 6,564 2.7
Udo Adam Bonn The Left 5,257 2.2
Dominique Mirus Die PARTEI 3,039 1.2
Mark Schenk Volt Germany 2,255 0.9
Claudia Krüger Animal Welfare Here! 1,939 0.8
Hans-Joachim Grumbach Free Voters 1,192 0.5
Celine Coldewe Climate List Düsseldorf 954 0.4
Michael Baumeister Independent 947 0.4
Marc Olejak Pirate Party Germany 792 0.3
Markus Brakonier German Sport Party 383 0.2
Andre Maniera The Republicans 325 0.1
Valid votes 244,322 98.8 211,307 99.3
Invalid votes 3,008 1.2 1,571 0.7
Total 247,330 100.0 212,878 100.0
Electorate/voter turnout 470,511 52.6 470,312 45.3
Source: State Returning Officer

City council

Results of the 2020 city council election

The Düsseldorf city council (Düsseldorfer Stadtrat) governs the city alongside the Mayor. The most recent city council election was held on 13 September 2020, and the results were as follows:

Party Votes % +/- Seats +/-
Christian Democratic Union (CDU) 81,833 33.4 Decrease 3.3 30 Decrease 1
Alliance 90/The Greens (Grüne) 58,881 24.0 Increase 10.3 22 Increase 11
Social Democratic Party (SPD) 43,949 17.9 Decrease 11.4 16 Decrease 8
Free Democratic Party (FDP) 22,453 9.2 Increase 2.2 8 Increase 2
The Left (Die Linke) 9,951 4.1 Decrease 1.1 4 ±0
Alternative for Germany (AfD) 8,776 3.6 Increase 0.6 3 Increase 1
Volt Germany (Volt) 4,512 1.8 New 2 New
Die PARTEI (PARTEI) 4,371 1.8 New 2 New
Animal Welfare Here! (Tierschutz hier!) 3,437 1.4 New 1 New
Free Voters (FW) 2,212 0.9 Decrease 0.3 1 ±0
Climate List Düsseldorf (Klimaliste) 2,124 0.9 New 1 New
Pirate Party Germany (Piraten) 1,464 0.6 Decrease 1.1 0 Decrease 1
German Sport Party (DSP) 642 0.3 New 0 New
The Republicans (REP) 586 0.2 Decrease 0.4 0 Decrease 1
RESISTANCE 2020 We for Düsseldorf 76 0.0 New 0 New
Valid votes 245,271 99.2
Invalid votes 2,085 0.8
Total 247,356 100.0 90 Increase 8
Electorate/voter turnout 470,511 52.6 Increase 3.4
Source: State Returning Officer


Rheinturm and Gehry-buildings Der Neue Zollhof in Hafen
Königsallee in Stadtmitte
Since 2021 the central street Immermannstraße has bilingual (German/Japanese) signs.

Düsseldorf has become one of the top telecommunications centres in Germany. With two of the four big German providers of mobile frequencies, D2 Vodafone and E-Plus, Düsseldorf leads the German mobile phone market. There are many foreign information and communication technology companies in Düsseldorf such as Huawei, NTT, Ericsson, Oppo, Vivo and Xiaomi.[49] There are 18 internet service providers located in the capital of North Rhine-Westphalia. There are two airlines with headquarters in the city: Eurowings and formerly independent LTU International.[50]

Many of the internet companies in Düsseldorf have their roots in the world of advertising: there are 400 advertising agencies in Düsseldorf, among them three of the largest in Germany: BBDO Group, Grey Global Group and Publicis. A number of affiliates of foreign agencies deserve mention as well, such as Ogilvy & Mather, Dentsu, Hakuhodo, TBWA, and DDB. There are also about 200 publishing houses in Düsseldorf.

Businesses operating in Düsseldorf include Peek & Cloppenburg (fashion); Uniper (electricity generation); L'Oréal Germany (Cosmetics and Beauty); Henkel AG & Co. KGaA (Branded Consumer Goods and Industrial technologies); Metro (wholesale, retail); Ceconomy (retail); Esprit Holdings (fashion, headquarters in Ratingen near Düsseldorf); BASF Personal Care & Nutrition (formerly Cognis – chemicals, headquarters in Monheim near Düsseldorf, but production mainly in Düsseldorf).[citation needed] Daimler AG builds the Mercedes-Benz Sprinter light commercial vehicles in Düsseldorf.

Since the 1960s, there has been a strong relationship between the city and Japan. Many Japanese banks and corporations have their European headquarters in Düsseldorf – so many that Düsseldorf has the third largest Japanese community in Europe, after London and Paris.[41][42]

The "Kö", which stands for Königsallee ("King's Avenue"), is a shopping destination. Some jewellery shops, designer labels, and galleries have their stores here. The Kö has among the highest rents for retail and office space in Germany.[51]

Financial center


The city is an important financial center.[52] More than 30,000 people work for the financial and insurance sector in Düsseldorf.[53] There are around 170 national and international financial institutions, and about 130 insurance agencies, and one of Germany's eight stock exchanges. HSBC has its German headquarters in Düsseldorf and employs 3,000 people. NRW.BANK is a development bank of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia and the largest state development bank in Germany. NRW.BANK was spun off from WestLB in 2002. Today Deutsche Bank and Commerzbank have major branches in Düsseldorf with about 2,000 employees. Düsseldorf is also the most important German financial center for Japanese credit institutions. MUFG Bank, SMBC and Mizuho have their German headquarters in Düsseldorf. Also Santander has its German headquarters in the Düsseldorf region. Some major insurance companies such as ERGO, a subsidiary of Munich Re, and ARAG are located in the city. Several other major financial service companies have their headquarters in the city.



Important newspapers and journals such as Handelsblatt, Rheinische Post, Wirtschaftswoche, Deutsches Wirtschaftsblatt and VDI-Nachrichten are published in Düsseldorf. Almost all of these papers are available online. Renowned filmmaking companies, such as Germany's biggest cinema enterprise, the Riech Group, and TV channels such as WDR and QVC are located in Düsseldorf. The Film- und Medienstiftung NRW foundation supports the production of film and new media.[citation needed]

With regard to movies and movie theatres in Düsseldorf, moviegoers are able to view movies in a range of different languages. Many mainstream movies are shown in English, Spanish, French, and German.[54]



Düsseldorf Airport

Düsseldorf Airport

Düsseldorf Airport, also referred to as Rhein-Ruhr Airport, is located eight kilometres (5 miles) north of the city centre and can easily be reached by train or the S-Bahn urban railway. There is a long-distance train station served by regional and national services, which is linked to the airport by the SkyTrain, an automatic people mover. Another station situated under the terminal building carries the S-Bahn line (S11) to Düsseldorf Central Station, and to Cologne as well as a few selected night services. After those of Frankfurt, Munich and Berlin, Düsseldorf Airport is Germany's fourth largest commercial airport, with 25.5 million passengers annually (2019).[55] The airport offers 180 destinations on four continents, and is served by 70 airlines. The airport buildings were partly destroyed by a devastating fire caused by welding works in 1996, killing 17 people. It was completely rebuilt and the Skytrain installed.


Düsseldorf Straßenbahn and Düsseldorf Stadtbahn network, part of the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr

The city is a major hub in the Deutsche Bahn (DB) railway network. More than 1,000 trains stop in Düsseldorf daily. Düsseldorf Central Station at Konrad-Adenauer-Platz is located in Düsseldorf-Stadtmitte. Several Rhein-Ruhr S-Bahn lines connect Düsseldorf to other cities of Rhine-Ruhr. Local Düsseldorf Straßenbahn and light rail Düsseldorf Stadtbahn traffic, as well as local bus traffic, is carried out by the city-owned Rheinbahn which operates within the VRR public transport system. The light rail system also serves neighbouring cities and is partially operated underground. The Central Station and the Airport Station (Flughafen-Bahnhof) are connected to the national and European high-speed systems (Intercity/Eurocity, IC/EC and InterCityExpress).


Officially licensed taxis are always ivory coloured.

In Düsseldorf there are 1320 officially licensed taxis. According to the regulations, the cars are always ivory coloured. On the back window you always find a black number on a yellow patch. Credit card payment has to be accepted at the taxi stands at Airport of Düsseldorf.

The supply of taxis in Düsseldorf is over the German average.[citation needed] Two taxi organisations cover the market.[citation needed] "Taxi-Düsseldorf" offers more than 1180 cabs in different sizes. The smaller one is "Rhein-Taxi" with more than 120 cabs. It is obligatory to carry out any journeys to destinations in the city and directly neighbouring cities.[56]



In addition to stationary car sharing, where vehicles must be returned to their original location after use, one-way carsharing vehicles have also been available for hire since 2012. These vehicles, which can be parked anywhere where parking is normally allowed within Düsseldorf, can be rented from Car2go, Greenwheels, Stadtmobil and DriveNow.[57]



North Rhine-Westphalia has the densest network of autobahns in Germany and Düsseldorf is directly accessible via the A3, A44, A46, A52, A57, A59 and A524.



Düsseldorf is connected to some national and international cycling paths, including EV15 The Rhine Cycle Route.

The city of Düsseldorf is a member of the German North Rhine-Westphalia District, Municipality and City Friends of Pedestrians and Cyclists Working Group, who bestowed upon Düsseldorf the title of "Friend of Cyclists City" in 2007, although the city still has a few gaps in the network of cycle paths in the eyes of many of its citizens.

Culture and recreation


Elector Jan Wellem and his wife Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici of Tuscany, were patrons of Düsseldorf's first significant cultural activities in the 17th and 18th centuries. Heinrich Heine, whose 200th birthday was celebrated in 1997 and who originally had a proposed memorial in the city dedicated to him; Clara and Robert Schumann; and Felix Mendelssohn, are the most prominent artists related to the city, which is home to a distinguished Academy of Fine Arts.

The Düsseldorf cultural scene comprises traditional and avant-garde, classical and popular. The world-famous state art collection of North Rhine-Westphalia, the highly acclaimed Deutsche Oper am Rhein (opera), and the Düsseldorfer Schauspielhaus (theatre), artistic home of Gustaf Gründgens, are major elements of Düsseldorf's reputation as a centre of the fine arts.



Düsseldorf is well known for its Altbier,[58] a hoppy beer which translates as old [style] beer, a reference to the pre-lager brewing method of using a warm top-fermenting yeast like British pale ales.[59] Over time the Alt yeast adjusted to lower temperatures, and the Alt brewers would store or lager the beer after fermentation, leading to a cleaner, crisper beer. The name "altbier" first appeared in the 19th century to differentiate the beers of Düsseldorf from the new pale lager that was gaining a hold on Germany.[60]

Brewers in Düsseldorf used the pale malts that were used for the modern pale lagers, but retained the old ("alt") method of using warm fermenting yeasts. The first brewery to use the name Alt was Schumacher, which opened in 1838.[61] The founder, Mathias Schumacher, allowed the beer to mature in cool conditions in wooden casks for longer than normal, and laid the foundation for the modern alt – amber coloured and lagered.[62] The result is a pale beer that has some of the lean dryness of a lager but with fruity notes as well.[63]

There are five pub-breweries in Düsseldorf which brew Altbier on the premises: Füchschen, Schumacher, Schlüssel, Uerige and Brauerei Kürzer. Four of the five are in the historic centre of Düsseldorf (Altstadt); the other (Schumacher), between the Altstadt and Düsseldorf Central railway station (Hauptbahnhof), also maintains an establishment in the Altstadt, Im Goldenen Kessel, across the street from Schlüssel.

Each (except Brauerei Kürzer) produces a special, secret, seasonal "Sticke" version in small quantities, though the names vary: Schlüssel spells it "Stike", without the "c", while Schumacher calls its special beer "Latzenbier", meaning "slat beer", possibly because the kegs from which it was poured had been stored on raised shelves.[64] Füchschen's seasonal is its Weihnachtsbier (Christmas beer), available in bottles starting mid-November, and served in the brewpub on Christmas Eve.[65]

Music and nightlife

Sensation White New Year's Eve party, Esprit Arena

Düsseldorf has been home to a number of influential music artists and bands, particularly in the electronic and krautrock genres, with Kraftwerk being the most prominent example. As one source describes, "This is the place where Neu! conceived the motorik beat, Harmonia dreamed up ambient, Die Krupps expanded the idea of industrial, and where those brilliant mensch-maschines Kraftwerk, declared: 'We are the robots'."[66]

Since the 1950s the "Kom(m)ödchen" has been one of the most prominent political cabarets of Germany. The city's best-known contribution to the culture of modern popular music is the influential avant-garde electronic band Kraftwerk. Formed by two Düsseldorf-born musicians, Kraftwerk is internationally known as the most significant band in the history of post-war German music and as pioneers in electronic music.[67]

Other influential musical groups originating from Düsseldorf include Neu!, formed in 1971 by Klaus Dinger and Michael Rother, after their split from Kraftwerk,[68] and La Düsseldorf, also formed by Dinger in 1976 shortly after Neu! disbanded. Both groups had a significant influence on a variety of subsequent rock, post-punk, and electronic music artists.[69]

Internationally known power metal band Warlock was formed in Düsseldorf in 1982. Its frontwoman, Doro Pesch, has had a successful solo career in Europe and Asia since Warlock ended. The punk band Die Toten Hosen, the electronic act D.A.F., as well as the electronic/industrial pioneers Die Krupps, all originated in Düsseldorf.

Düsseldorf appears in several songs, including Düsseldorf by the British indie band Teleman and Wärst du doch in Düsseldorf geblieben by Danish singer Dorthe Kollo.



Düsseldorf has been the fashion capital of Germany for decades; it is also a major cultural center for the art scene. Berlin, Germany's 'fashion capital' until 1945, lost its position because of its special location within the Soviet occupation zone. After the monetary reform of June 20, 1948, fashionable clothes trends gained importance. Igedo organised fashion shows staged in Düsseldorf starting in March 1949.[70] There are a number of schools dedicated to fashion design in Düsseldorf, among them Akademie Mode & Design (de), Design Department, and Mode Design College.[71]


Carnival in Düsseldorf

One of the biggest cultural events in Düsseldorf is the Karneval (also referred to as the "fifth season") which starts every year on 11 November at 11:11 a.m., and reaches its climax on Rosenmontag (Rose Monday), featuring a huge parade through the streets of Düsseldorf. Karneval ends on Aschermittwoch (Ash Wednesday).

Düsseldorf's cartwheeler


The Düsseldorfer Radschläger (boy who does cartwheels) is said to be the city's oldest tradition. The symbol of the cartwheeler can be found on souvenirs and various things in Düsseldorf have cartwheelers to thank for their names.[citation needed]

Legends of its origin and history


The tradition cannot be linked to one specific historical event. Instead, there are several stories surrounding the beginnings of the Düsseldorf cartwheelers. Probably the most well known version is the Battle of Worringen. In the battle of 1288, Count Adolf devastatingly defeated the Archbishop of Cologne. As a consequence of this victory, Düsseldorf obtained town privileges. Inhabitants, especially children, ran joyfully on the streets and performed cartwheels.

Another story talks about a wedding procession during which one of the wheels of the wedding carriage broke. In order to fend off the threat of bad luck, a boy supposedly jumped up to the carriage, took hold of the wheel and thus became a living part of the wheel. Whether the story is about the marriage of Jan Wellem and Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici or the wedding of Margravine Jakobea of Baden and Johann Wilhelm is debatable.

Another story gives an account of the wedding between Margrave Jacobe von Baden and Johann Wilhelm in 1585. According to legend, she felt miserable about her marriage, but the cartwheelers who displayed their skills next to her carriage were able to make her smile. Numerous travelers were attracted to the city by great exhibitions – the forerunner of today's fairs – between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. During this time the children who did cartwheels found out that it was a profitable source of income. The bourgeoisie accepted this in good humour as a symbolic act of local patriotism. In the beginning the lads shouted "för eene Penning schlage ich das Rad“ (a cartwheel for a penny).

The Jan Wellem monument returned to Düsseldorf at the end of the Second World War. The procession was accompanied by torches, fanfares and cartwheeling boys.

Cartwheelers in the cityscape

Cartwheelers can be found at several fountains within the city and near many small landmarks. The most famous is Cartwheeler's Fountain in Burgplatz (de) with an inscription of a quote by Hans Müller-Schlösser: "Radschläger wolle mer blieve, wie jeck et de Minschen och drieve" (We will always remain cartwheelers, however crazy it drives people.) The fountain was designed by Alfred Zschorsch in 1954 and donated by Heimatverein Düsseldorfer Jonges, which is a club devoted to the maintenance of local and regional traditions. There are other cartwheelers that decorate storm drains and the door knocker on the Church of Lambertus, designed by Friedrich Becker. He created the cartwheeler in front of the Schadow Arcades.[citation needed]

The tradition has been kept alive by the Alde Düsseldorfer Bürgergesellschaft von 1920 e. V., a society founded in 1920, which organized the first cartwheeler competition on 17 October 1937. This event has been held annually since 1971[72] in cooperation with the Stadtsparkasse (a local bank). Formerly held in the Königsallee, it has taken place since 2006 on the Rheinwerft, near the old part of town. This is a fixed date in the city's calendar of events. About 500 boys regularly participate in the event and girls have also taken part since 1971. In an art project Radschläger-Kunst (Cartwheeler Art) launched in 2001, over 100 cartwheeler sculptures were designed by various artists. The door knocker on the Church of Lambertus[73][circular reference] served as a model for the sculptures that are 2 metres (6 feet 7 inches) high, 2 metres (6 feet 7 inches) wide and 30 cm (12 in) deep. They were positioned around the city centre. Some of the sculptures have been auctioned off to companies and private owners.[citation needed]

Christmas market


Every Christmas, the city of Düsseldorf uses the city centre to host one of the largest Christmas gatherings in Germany. The Christmas festival occurs every year from 17 November until 23 December. This Christmas fest brings Düsseldorf a large portion of tourism every year as many people from nearby areas come to the city to drink mulled wine and hot chocolate and watch craftsmen blow glass and create art. The event takes place among many small wooden buildings all clustered in the middle of the city for all the citizens to enjoy. The event, to many visitors, has an old European feel, but is very lively.


Himmel un Äd, "Heaven and Earth"

Traditional meals in the region are Rheinischer Sauerbraten (a beef roast and sometimes horse marinated for a few days in vinegar and spices served with gravy and raisins) and Heaven and Earth (Himmel und Äd; black pudding with stewed apples mixed with mashed potatoes). In winter the people like to eat Muscheln Rheinischer Art (Rhenish-style mussels) as well as Reibekuchen (fried potato pancake served with apple sauce). Also a special meal: Düsseldorfer Senfrostbraten (Steaks roasted with Düsseldorf mustard on top).

Düsseldorf is known for its strong Dijon-like mustard served in a traditional pot called "Mostertpöttche", which was immortalised in a still life by Vincent van Gogh in 1884.[74]

The Rhine Metropolis is one of the most diverse areas in terms of culinary diversity. Düsseldorf, with the third largest Japanese community in Europe, not only provides a wide range of cuisine but also has a solid foundation of authentic Asian food in the city. Düsseldorf's exceptional cuisine has been recognized by the worldwide leading travel guide Lonely Planet. Along with a broad range of diverse cultural cuisine, Düsseldorf is also home to various Michelin starred restaurants that are world renowned.[75]

Local specialties include:

Halve Hahn – this dish is made from a half a double rye roll, which is another of the specialties of Düsseldorf, buttered, with a thick slice of aged Gouda cheese, onions, mustard, ground paprika and sour pickles.

Himmel un Aad – a dish of mashed potatoes and apples along with slices of blutwurst. Caramelized onions are usually served with this meal.

Reibekuchen is another famous dish from Düsseldorf; this dish is usually drizzled with Rübensyrup (beet syrup) and is served on pumpernickel slices along with applesauce.[76]



The Förderpreis für Literatur der Landeshauptstadt Düsseldorf is a German Literary award donated by the City of Düsseldorf in Northrhine-Westphalia.[77] The Prize for Literature in support of the City of Düsseldorf is awarded since 1972 by the Council of the City due to the decisions of the courts.[78]

The Förderpreis für Literatur der Landeshauptstadt Düsseldorf is given once a year to artists and groups, especially to the areas of poetry, writing, review and translation.[79]

Rivalry with Cologne


Düsseldorf and Cologne have had a "fierce regional rivalry".[80] The rivalry includes carnival parades, football, ice hockey and beer.[80] People in Cologne prefer Kölsch while people in Düsseldorf prefer Altbier.[80] Some Waiters and patrons will "scorn" and make a "mockery" of people who order Alt beer in Cologne and Kölsch in Düsseldorf.[80] The rivalry has been described as a "love-hate relationship".[80]


Düsseldorf Schauspielhaus
Düsseldorf Tonhalle

Museums, arts and history institutes, and other attractions

Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen – K20 (Grabbeplatz)
Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen – K21 (Ständehaus)

Parks and gardens


Sports and live events


Düsseldorf's main football team Fortuna Düsseldorf won the 1933 German championship, the German Cup in 1979 and 1980, and were finalists in the European Cup Winners Cup in 1979. They currently play in the 2. Bundesliga, after being relegated from the Bundesliga in 2020. They play their matches in the Merkur Spiel-Arena (formerly known as the 'ESPIRIT arena'), a multi-functional stadium with a capacity of 54,500.

Düsseldorf was one of nine host cities for the 1974 FIFA World Cup, and is one of ten venues staging the 2024 UEFA European Championship. The Rochusclub Düsseldorf has hosted the tennis World Team Cup from 1978 till 2012.[90] Düsseldorf also held the Grand Départ for the Tour de France in July 2017.[91]

Other sports in Düsseldorf are ice hockey (the Düsseldorfer EG which play in the PSD Bank Dome) and American football. The Düsseldorf Panther are one of the most successful teams in Germany with six German Bowl titles and the Eurobowl victory in 1995. In addition the Junior Team are the most successful youth department in Germany with fifteen Junior Bowl victories. Rhine Fire Düsseldorf were an established team of the NFL Europe and won the World Bowl two times in 1998 and 2000. Düsseldorf has a successful rugby union team (Düsseldorf Dragons), who as of 2017/18 play in the western division of the 2. Bundesliga, the second tier of German rugby.[92]

Table tennis is also played (Borussia Düsseldorf – the most successful team in Germany with Timo Boll), as are handball (HSG Düsseldorf), basketball (Düsseldorf Giants), baseball (Düsseldorf Senators) and dancing (Rot-Weiß Düsseldorf). Düsseldorf also has a Cricket team, the Düsseldorf Blackcaps, who play in the regional NRW league.[93]

The city hosted the Eurovision Song Contest 2011.



Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf is located in the southern part of the city. It has about 30,000 students and a wide range of subjects in natural sciences, mathematics, computer sciences, philosophy, social sciences, arts, languages, medicine, pharmacy, economy and the law.

Other academic institutions include:

International primary and secondary schools:

Notable buildings

The Neuer Zollhof at Medienhafen
Köbogen building

Notable places

Benrath Palace, Corp de Logis

Twin towns – sister cities


Düsseldorf is twinned with:[101]

Friendship and cooperation


Düsseldorf also cooperates with:[104]

Notable people


Born before 1850

Heinrich Heine 1831
Johann Georg Jacobi

Born 1851–1900

Georg Wenker

Born after 1900

Helmut Käutner 1960

Joseph H. Heinen (1903-1981), founder, Heinen's Grocery Stores, Cleveland, Ohio

Associated with Düsseldorf


See also



  1. ^ (/ˈdʊsəldɔːrf/ DUUSS-əl-dorf, US also /ˈdjs-/ DEWSS-,[4][5][6] German: [ˈdʏsl̩dɔʁf] ; Low Franconian and Ripuarian: Düsseldörp [ˈdʏsəldœʀ(ə)p];[tone?] archaic Dutch: Dusseldorp [ˈdʏsəlˌdɔr(ə)p])
  2. ^ after Berlin, Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, and Frankfurt
  3. ^ From north to south: Kittelbach, Nördliche Düssel, Südliche Düssel, Brückerbach
  1. ^ Wahlergebnisse in NRW Kommunalwahlen 2020 Archived 17 May 2022 at the Wayback Machine, Land Nordrhein-Westfalen, accessed 19 June 2021.
  2. ^ Amt für Statistik und Wahlen. "Demografie-Monitoring Düsseldorf 2013 bis 2018" (in German). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 January 2010. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
  3. ^ "Bevölkerung der Gemeinden Nordrhein-Westfalens am 31. Dezember 2023 – Fortschreibung des Bevölkerungsstandes auf Basis des Zensus vom 9. Mai 2011" (in German). Landesbetrieb Information und Technik NRW. Retrieved 20 June 2024.
  4. ^ "Dusseldorf". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Archived from the original on 1 March 2019. Retrieved 2 February 2023.
  5. ^ "Düsseldorf". Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary. Retrieved 2 February 2023.
  6. ^ "Düsseldorf Definition & Meaning". Dictionary.com. Archived from the original on 3 February 2023. Retrieved 2 February 2023.
  7. ^ 1,525,029 inhabitants for the Düsseldorf Larger Urban Zone
  8. ^ "Communla Administration of Düsseldorf, 28 of July 2008" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 August 2009. Retrieved 16 April 2010.
  9. ^ "Immobilien Zeitung: Mehr Räume für die große Modenschau vom 28. August 2008, 1 March 2009" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 16 April 2010.
  10. ^ "Cushman & Wakefield: European Cities Monitor" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 May 2012. Retrieved 4 June 2011.
  11. ^ "Messe Düsseldorf Annual Report" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 4 June 2011.
  12. ^ 2010 survey by Jones Lang LaSalle Archived 24 February 2021 at the Wayback Machine; accessed 8 December 2014. (in German)
  13. ^ "Mercer's 2011 Quality of Living survey highlights — Global". Mercer. 15 June 2011. Archived from the original on 13 May 2011. Retrieved 15 June 2011.
  14. ^ Woolsey, Matt (28 April 2009). "World's 20 Best Places To Live". Forbes.com. Archived from the original on 8 November 2017. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  15. ^ Weidenhaupt, Hugo: Kleine Geschichte der Stadt Düsseldorf, Triltsch-Verlag, Düsseldorf 1979; ISBN 3-7998-0000-X. (in German)
  16. ^ Jörg Nimmergut: Historische Wertpapiere – Sinnvoll sammeln – garantiert gewinnen, p. 144-145, ISBN 3894410426
  17. ^ Madison, Rodney (2005). "Air Warfare, Strategic Bombing". The Encyclopedia of World War I: A Political, Social and Military History. Vol. 1. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. pp. 45–46. ISBN 1851094202.; Tilford, Earl H. Jr. (1996). "Air Warfare: Strategic Bombing". The European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. pp. 13–15. ISBN 0-81533-351-X.
  18. ^ Birchall, Ian H./Pierre Broué/Brian Pearce, The German Revolution 1917–1923, p. 278.
  19. ^ "Strafgefängnis und Untersuchungshaftanstalt Düsseldorf-Derendorf". Bundesarchiv.de (in German). Retrieved 31 March 2024.
  20. ^ Megargee, Geoffrey P. (2009). The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos 1933–1945. Volume I. Indiana University Press, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. pp. 330–336. ISBN 978-0-253-35328-3.
  21. ^ "Lager für Sinti und Roma Düsseldorf". Bundesarchiv.de (in German). Retrieved 31 March 2024.
  22. ^ "Israel National News 1 August 2021". Archived from the original on 3 August 2021. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  23. ^ Stanton, Shelby, World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division, 1939–1946 (Revised Edition, 2006), Stackpole Books, p. 174.
  24. ^ "Düsseldorf, Germany Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Archived from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
  25. ^ "Bezirksregierung Düsseldorf – Luftreinhalteplan (2004)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 September 2006. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
  26. ^ Klimaatlas – NRW (1989): Der Minister für Umwelt, Raumordnung und Landwirtschaft des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalens, Düsseldorf.
  27. ^ "Düsseldorf Climate Normals 1991–2020". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 16 September 2023. Retrieved 16 September 2023.
  28. ^ "Monatswerte Düsseldorf". Deutscher Wetterdienst. 2020. Archived from the original on 28 September 2023. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
  29. ^ "IT.NRW – Statistisches Landesamt Nordrhein-Westfalen". Landesbetrieb IT.NRW. Archived from the original on 16 June 2019. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
  30. ^ "Germany: States and Major Cities".
  31. ^ "Statistische Informationen" (PDF). Amt 12. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 April 2022. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  32. ^ "Statistische Informationen" (PDF). Amt 12. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 April 2022. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  33. ^ "Statistische Informationen" (PDF). Amt 12. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 April 2022. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  34. ^ "Statistische Informationen" (PDF). Amt 12. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 June 2022. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  35. ^ "Statistische Informationen" (PDF). Amt 12. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 April 2022. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  36. ^ "Statistische Informationen" (PDF). Amt 12. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 March 2022. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  37. ^ "Statistische Informationen" (PDF). Amt 12. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 April 2022. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  38. ^ "EU-Ausländer in Duesseldorf" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 January 2022. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  39. ^ "Amtliche Bevölkerungszahlen". Information und Technik Nordrhein-Westfalen. Archived from the original on 14 July 2016. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  40. ^ "Statistisches Jahrbuch der Landeshauptstadt Düsseldorf – Bevölkerung nach Nationalität" (PDF). Duesseldorf.de. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 March 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
  41. ^ a b "Japanese Düsseldorf". VirtualTourist.com. 11 February 2003. Archived from the original on 19 September 2008. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  42. ^ a b "Japantag in Düsseldorf: Welcome". Japantag-duesseldorf-nrw.de. Archived from the original on 17 February 2012. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  43. ^ Düsseldorf, Landeshauptstadt. "Statistische Daten". www.duesseldorf.de (in German). Retrieved 30 October 2023.
  44. ^ Düsseldorf, Landeshauptstadt. "Statistische Daten". www.duesseldorf.de (in German). Retrieved 30 October 2023.
  45. ^ "Düsseldorf | Jüdische Allgemeine". www.juedische-allgemeine.de. Archived from the original on 28 November 2019. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
  46. ^ Zeitung, Aachener (10 October 2019). ""Bleiben wir?": Juden in Düsseldorf nach Anschlag von Halle verunsichert". Aachener Zeitung (in German). Archived from the original on 28 November 2019. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
  47. ^ Zeitung, Westdeutsche (22 August 2017). "Düsseldorf: Antisemitismus in Düsseldorf: Jüdische Schüler werden angefeindet". Westdeutsche Zeitung (in German). Archived from the original on 28 November 2019. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
  48. ^ Stadtbezirke und Stadtteile Archived 10 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine, Landeshauptstadt Düsseldorf. Retrieved 3 November 2022. (in German)
  49. ^ "Strengthening the IT and digital location: Three Chinese tech corporations move to North Rhine-Westphalia". www.nrwinvest.com. Archived from the original on 14 August 2020. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
  50. ^ "Kontakt". Archived from the original on 6 June 2000. Retrieved 30 March 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link) LTU International; retrieved 21 June 2009.
  51. ^ "Modemetropole Mit Internationalem Chic" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 August 2007. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  52. ^ Finke, Tobias Rafael (2016). "Deutschland, deine Finanzplätze". Die Bank – Zeitschrift für Bankpolitik und Praxis. 8: 18–22.
  53. ^ "Regionalreport über Beschäftigte – Kreise und Agenturen für Arbeit". 2019. Archived from the original on 2 November 2019. Retrieved 2 November 2019.
  54. ^ Garry. "Movie theatres and cinemas showing original language films and movies, OV, OmU in Düsseldorf on Amazing Düsseldorf | Amazing Capitals". www.amazingcapitals.com. Archived from the original on 9 October 2016. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
  55. ^ derwesten.de, DerWesten- (8 September 2021). "Größte Flughäfen in Deutschland: DAS sind die Airports mit den meisten Passagieren in der Bundesrepublik". www.derwesten.de (in German). Archived from the original on 27 July 2022. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
  56. ^ "Landeshauptstadt Düsseldorf - Verordnung über die Beförderungsentgelte und Beförderungsbedingungen im Gelegenheitsverkehr mit den in der Landeshauptstadt Düsseldorf zugelassenen Taxen (Taxentarifordnung)". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 6 November 2015. Verordnung über die Beförderungsentgelte und Beförderungsbedingungen im Gelegenheitsverkehr mit den in der Landeshauptstadt Düsseldorf zugelassenen Taxen (Taxentarifordnung) (German)
  57. ^ Düsseldorf, Landeshauptstadt. "CarSharing". www.duesseldorf.de. Archived from the original on 28 October 2019. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
  58. ^ Unknown. "Altbier". Brauer-bund.de. Archived from the original on 29 April 2007. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  59. ^ "Michael Jackson's Beer Hunter – Copper-bottom ales halt lager tide in Germany". Beerhunter.com. Archived from the original on 14 December 2014. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  60. ^ "Altbier". Germanbeerinstitute.com. Archived from the original on 13 March 2009. Retrieved 8 July 2009.
  61. ^ "Düsseldorf Breweries". Europeanbeerguide.net. Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 8 July 2009.
  62. ^ Prost! The Story of German Beer, Horst D. Dornbusch, Brewers Publications, 1997, pp 109–110; ISBN 0-937381-55-1
  63. ^ "Düsseldorf Pub Guide: the best beer bars, pubs and brewpubs". Europeanbeerguide.net. Archived from the original on 15 November 2014. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  64. ^ Horst Dornbusch, Altbier, Boulder, CO: Brewers Publications.
  65. ^ "Fuchschen webpage on Weihnachtsbier". Archived from the original on 27 January 2008. Retrieved 27 April 2007.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  66. ^ Hollow, Christopher (5 June 2015). "How Dusseldorf became the birthplace of modern electronica". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 9 February 2024.
  67. ^ Desperately seeking Kraftwerk Archived 26 March 2020 at the Wayback Machine; "Kraftwerk [was] so far ahead of [its] time that the rest of the world...spent 25 years inventing new musical genres in an attempt to catch up. Another famous Synth-pop band to come from the city was Propaganda. House, techno, hip-hop, trip-hop, synth-pop, trance, electroclash: Kraftwerk's influence looms over all of them. It's difficult to imagine what rock and pop music would sound like today if Kraftwerk had never existed", The Guardian, 24 July 2003; accessed 8 December 2014.
  68. ^ Strong, Martin Charles (2002). The Great Rock Discography. Canongate. p. 687. ISBN 978-1-84195-312-0.
  69. ^ "Neu! | Biography & History | AllMusic". AllMusic. Archived from the original on 5 May 2019. Retrieved 5 January 2017.
  70. ^ Verkaufs- und Modewoche Düsseldorf (source: Der Spiegel 2/1950 Archived 24 February 2021 at the Wayback Machine)
  71. ^ "Fashion Schools". www.duesseldorf-tourismus.de. Archived from the original on 6 April 2016. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
  72. ^ "Düsseldorf Christmas Market | Christmas Markets". Christmas Markets. Archived from the original on 9 November 2016. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
  73. ^ picture
  74. ^ "Düsseldorf Altstadt: Van Gogh, Stilleben mit ABB-Senf". Duesseldorf-altstadt.blogspot.com. 25 January 2007. Retrieved 5 May 2009.
  75. ^ "Düsseldorf's culinary side – Metropolis Düsseldorf – Düsseldorf Tourism". www.duesseldorf-tourismus.de. Archived from the original on 9 November 2016. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
  76. ^ "Johannisbeeren and Schwarze Johannisbeeren – Redcurrant – Red and Black Currant". About.com Food. Archived from the original on 9 November 2016. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
  77. ^ Michael Bergmann. "Förderpreis für Literatur der Landeshauptstadt Düsseldorf". Duesseldorf.de. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  78. ^ Förderpreis für Literatur der Landeshauptstadt Düsseldorf Archived 23 April 2023 at the Wayback Machine, Kürschners Deutscher Literatur-Kalender 2010/2011: Band I: A-O. Band II: P-Z.], Walter De Gruyter Incorporated, 2010, p. 1427.
  79. ^ Benutzername / E-Mail- (7 December 2011). "Düsseldorf vergibt Kulturpreise". Rp-online.de. Archived from the original on 28 September 2023. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  80. ^ a b c d e "Giving beer a home in the Rhineland". The Local. 28 July 2011. Archived from the original on 28 October 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  81. ^ "Filmmuseum". Duesseldorf.de. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  82. ^ "iks-medienarchiv.de". iks-medienarchiv.de. Archived from the original on 28 September 2023. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  83. ^ Julia Stoschek Collection Archived 10 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  84. ^ "KAI 10 | Raum für Kunst". Kaistrasse10.de. Archived from the original on 20 December 2014. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  85. ^ "Kulturbahnhof Eller". Kultur-bahnhof-eller.de. Archived from the original on 17 December 2014. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  86. ^ "KIT". Kunst-im-tunnel.de. Archived from the original on 18 September 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  87. ^ "onomato künstlerverein". Onomato-verein.de. Archived from the original on 25 June 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  88. ^ "Polnisches Institut Düsseldorf". Polnisches-institut.de. Archived from the original on 28 September 2023. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  89. ^ "zakk". Zakk.de. Archived from the original on 16 December 2014. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  90. ^ "Tennis: ATP führt World Team Cup wieder ein". RP ONLINE (in German). July 2018. Archived from the original on 28 November 2019. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
  91. ^ "Site officiel du Tour de France 2018". www.letour.com. Archived from the original on 5 October 2017. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
  92. ^ "RugbyWeb Spielpläne – BL2W". RugbyWeb.de. Archived from the original on 26 January 2018. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  93. ^ "Official Homepage". Düsseldorf Blackcaps. Archived from the original on 16 December 2014. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  94. ^ "Official Homepage". Kunstakademie-duesseldorf.de. Archived from the original on 26 October 2000. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  95. ^ "Fachhochschule Düsseldorf – Home". Fh-duesseldorf.de. Archived from the original on 16 April 2004. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  96. ^ "AMD Akademie Mode und Design". Amdnet.de. Archived from the original on 27 November 1999. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  97. ^ "Official homepage of the institute". Mpie.de. Archived from the original on 21 July 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  98. ^ "Deutsch lernen in Deutschland – Deutschkurse und Deutschprüfungen in Deutschland – Kursorte – Düsseldorf – Goethe-Institut". Goethe.de. Archived from the original on 21 April 2006. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  99. ^ "Gerresheim Basilica". Archived from the original on 17 February 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  100. ^ "St Suitbertus Basilica". Archived from the original on 18 June 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  101. ^ "Weltweite Kontakte: Türöffner für Bürger, Wirtschaft und Kultur". duesseldorf.de (in German). Düsseldorf. Archived from the original on 27 June 2018. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  102. ^ "Moskau". duesseldorf.de (in German). Düsseldorf. Archived from the original on 14 March 2019. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  103. ^ "Konsequenzen für die Städtepartnerschaft mit Moskau". duesseldorf.de (in German). Düsseldorf. Archived from the original on 28 March 2022. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  104. ^ "Städtefreundschaften & Kooperationen". duesseldorf.de (in German). Düsseldorf. Archived from the original on 1 May 2021. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  105. ^ "Wilson, Keppel and Betty — Curios". That's Entertainment. Archived from the original on 21 May 2018. Retrieved 20 May 2018.