Dutch-based creole languages
A Dutch creole is a creole language that has been substantially influenced by the Dutch language.
Most Dutch-based creoles originated in Dutch colonies in the Americas and Southeast Asia, after the 17th century expansion of Dutch maritime power. Almost all of them are now extinct, while two known varieties are classified as "critically endangered". The extinction has generally been attributed to a wilful cultural and generational language shift towards standard Dutch or the majority language of the area with each successive generation.
Afrikaans is considered to be a daughter language of Dutch and it, by contrast, is vibrant and has completely displaced Dutch in southern Africa. Though not a majority-held position, it is considered by some linguists to be a creole because of its simpler grammar relative to Dutch.
Some important Dutch creoles are the following:
|Negerhollands||U.S. Virgin Islands||extinct|
|Petjo||Indonesia, immigrant community in the Netherlands||extinct or critically in danger|
|Mohawk Dutch||United States||extinct|
|Jersey Dutch ("Negro Dutch")||United States||extinct|
Dutch has also made a significant contribution to other creoles:
- based mostly on English, Portuguese and African languages, spoken in Suriname
- based mostly on English, spoken in Suriname
- based on Malay with a significant number of Dutch vocabulary, spoken in the city of Manado, Indonesia
Despite its name, Pennsylvania Dutch is not descended from Dutch, but is a variety of West Central German.