Dutch-based creole languages

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dutch-based creoles, pidgins, and contact vernaculars (map also includes Afrikaans, a daughter language of Dutch)

A Dutch creole is a creole language that has been substantially influenced by the Dutch language.

Most Dutch-based creoles originated in Dutch colonies in the Americas and Southeast Asia, after the 17th century expansion of Dutch maritime power. Almost all of them are now extinct, while two known varieties are classified as "critically endangered". The extinction has generally been attributed to a wilful cultural and generational language shift towards standard Dutch or the majority language of the area with each successive generation.

Afrikaans is considered to be a daughter language of Dutch and it, by contrast, is vibrant and has completely displaced Dutch in southern Africa. Though not a majority-held position, it is considered by some linguists to be a creole because of its simpler grammar relative to Dutch.


Some important Dutch creoles are the following:

Creole Location Status
Berbice Guyana extinct
Skepi Guyana extinct
Negerhollands U.S. Virgin Islands extinct
Petjo Indonesia, immigrant community in the Netherlands extinct or critically in danger
Javindo Indonesia extinct
Mohawk Dutch United States extinct
Jersey Dutch ("Negro Dutch") United States extinct

Dutch has also made a significant contribution to other creoles:

based mostly on Portuguese and Spanish, spoken in Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao.
based mostly on English, Portuguese and African languages, spoken in Suriname
based mostly on English, spoken in Suriname
based on Malay with a significant number of Dutch vocabulary, spoken in the city of Manado, Indonesia

Despite its name, Pennsylvania Dutch is not descended from Dutch, but is a variety of West Central German.

See also[edit]