Dvůr Králové nad Labem
Dvůr Králové nad Labem
|• Mayor||Jan Jarolím (ANO)|
|• Total||35.84 km2 (13.84 sq mi)|
|Elevation||298 m (978 ft)|
|• Density||430/km2 (1,100/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
Dvůr Králové nad Labem (Czech pronunciation: [ˈdvuːr ˈkraːlovɛː ˈnad labɛm], German: Königinhof an der Elbe) is a town in Trutnov District in the Hradec Králové Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 15,000 inhabitants. It lies in the Elbe river valley. Dvůr Králové nad Labem is known for the Safari Park Dvůr Králové, one of the largest zoos in the country. The town centre is well preserved and is protected by law as an urban monument zone.
Villages of Lipnice, Verdek, Zboží, Žireč and Žirecká Podstráň are administrative parts of Dvůr Králové nad Labem.
The town's name means "Queen consort's court on the Elbe". It refers to its history, when it was owned by Bohemian queens, and geographical location. It was originally named Dvůr; the name appeared as Curia in Latin in 1270, as Hof in German in 1318, and then as Dwuor in Old Czech in 1421.
The first written mention of Dvůr Králové nad Labem is from 1270. A settlement with a small church was founded as guard point on a military trail to Silesia probably in the second half of the 12th century. The settlement began to expand with colonization of mostly German people. It is unknown when it was promoted to a town and became a property of the king.
In the 14th century, the town was fortified. In 1392, King Wenceslaus IV signed the town over to his wife, Queen Sophia of Bavaria. Since then, it was a dowry town and called Dvůr Králové. In 1421, the town surrendered without a fight to the moderate wing of the Hussites. In 1436, it became again a dowry town administered by Queen Barbara of Cilli.
During the Thirty Years' War, Dvůr Králové was repeatedly looted and damaged, and experienced decline. It was also marked by War of the Austrian Succession, Seven Years' War and Austro-Prussian War. The town however recovered thanks to textile crafts (weaving and dyeing), and became regional centre of trade and crafts. The industry further developed after the railway was built in 1858, the road network was improved, and the Elbe became navigable. In the 1880s, the first textile factories were established.
Until 1918, the town was part of the Austrian monarchy (Austria side after the compromise of 1867), head of the Königshof an der Elbe – Dvůr Králové nad Labem District, one of the 94 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in Bohemia.
On 16 September 1817 Václav Hanka allegedly discovered a manuscript appearing to be from the 13th century in the tower of a local church. The Manuscript of Dvůr Kralové, probably in fact created by Hanka, was intended to help Czech patriots in the struggle against German culture. Although it has been proved to be most likely a counterfeit, it became an important part of the country's history.
|Source: Historical lexicon of municipalities of the Czech Republic|
The largest employer based in Dvůr Králové nad Labem is JUTA a. s. The company was founded here in 1946 as jute and hemp processor and followed up on tradition of textile industry. Today it focuses on technical fabrics and synthetic products.
The town is known for Safari Park Dvůr Králové with its African safari theme. Visitors may admire over 2,300 animals of 500 species of mostly African hoofstock. It has a reputation of one of the most successful breeders of many endangered species.
Notable is the Church of Saint John the Baptist, which is a national monument. it was built in the Gothic style on the site of the original Romanesque church. The tower was added in 1644 and its present appearance is from the reconstructions in the 1890s.
The historic core is formed by T. G. Masaryka Square. Its main landmark is the Renaissance Old Town Hall. It was built in 1833, after the original building from 1572 burned down in 1790. It has arcades and decorative facade. Other sights of the square include Art Nouveau savings bank from 1909–1910, Baroque marian column from 1754, or a fountain from 1857.
In the town part of Žireč there is an old residence of the Jesuits.
- Ferdinand Albin Pax (1858–1942), botanist, acted in Germany
- Otto Gutfreund (1889–1927), Jewish sculptor
- Karl Freund (1890–1969), Jewish cameraman of the silent film era
- Rudolf Antonín Dvorský (1899–1966), musician, songwriter
- Jan Zdeněk Bartoš (1908–1981), composer
- Ladislav Lubina (1967–2021), ice hockey player and coach
- Martin Šonka (born 1978), aerobatics and fighter pilot
- Gabriela Martinovová (born 1981), alpine skier
- Karolína Grohová (born 1990), cross-country skier
- Josef Král (born 1990), racing driver
Twin towns – sister cities
- "Population of Municipalities – 1 January 2021". Czech Statistical Office. 30 April 2021.
- "History of the town". Town Information Centre Dvůr Králové nad Labem. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
- Die postalischen Abstempelungen auf den österreichischen Postwertzeichen-Ausgaben 1867, 1883 und 1890, Wilhelm Klein, 1967
- "Historický lexikon obcí České republiky 1869–2011 – Okres Trutnov" (in Czech). Czech Statistical Office. 21 December 2015. pp. 3–4.
- "O společnosti" (in Czech). JUTA a. s. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
- "Church of St. John the Baptist". Town Information Centre Dvůr Králové nad Labem. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
- "Town Circuit". Town Information Centre Dvůr Králové nad Labem. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
- "Partnerská města" (in Czech). Město Dvůr Králové nad Labem. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
- Official website
- Official tourist portal
- Safari Park Dvůr Králové
- Regional news
- Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. .
- Virtual show