Betula nana

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Dwarf birch
Betula nana0.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Fagales
Family: Betulaceae
Genus: Betula
Subgenus: Chamaebetula
Species: B. nana
Binomial name
Betula nana
L.

Betula nana, the dwarf birch,[2] is a species of birch in the family Betulaceae, found mainly in the tundra of the Arctic region.

Betula nana in Norway. September 2012. 1000m ASL

Description[edit]

It is a monoecious shrub growing up to 1–1.2 m high. The bark is non-peeling and shiny red-copper colored.[3] The leaves are rounded, 6–20 mm diameter, with a bluntly toothed margin. The leaves are a darker green on their upper surface. Leaf growth occurs after snow melt and become red in autumn. The wind-pollinated fruiting catkins are erect, 5–15 mm long and 4–10 mm broad.

Betula nana photographed north of the village of Upernavik Kujalleq, north-east of the mountain Kingigtoq, western Greenland

Distribution[edit]

Betula nana is native to arctic and cool temperate regions of Greenland, Iceland,northern Europe, northern Asia and northern North America and it will grow in a variety of conditions. It can be found in Greenland, Iceland. Outside of far northern areas, it is usually found growing only in mountains above 300 m, up to 835 m in Scotland and 2200 m in the Alps. Its eastern range limit is on Svalbard, where it is confined to warm sites.

In general, it favors wet but well drained sites with a nutrient poor, acidic soil which can be xeric and rocky. B. nana has a low tolerance for shade.

Ecology[edit]

There are two subspecies:

  • Betula nana subsp. nana. Canada (Baffin Island), Greenland, northern Europe (south to the Alps at high altitudes), northwestern Asia. Young twigs hairy, but without resin; leaves longer (to 20 mm), usually as long as broad.
  • Betula nana subsp. exilis. Northeastern Asia, northern North America (Alaska, Canada east to Nunavut). Young twigs hairless or with only scattered hairs, but coated in resin; leaves shorter (not over 12 mm long), often broader than long.

Genome[edit]

The genome of B. nana has been sequenced by a team of scientists led by Richard Buggs at Queen Mary University of London, using a plant from the Dundreggan Estate in Scotland owned by Trees for Life (Scotland).[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stritch, L. (2014). "Betula nana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2014: e.T194495A2341542. Retrieved 9 August 2016. 
  2. ^ "Betula nana". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 9 August 2016. 
  3. ^ Ewing, Susan. The Great Alaska Nature Factbook. Portland: Alaska Northwest Books, 1996.
  4. ^ Wang N.; Thomson M.; Bodles W.J.; Crawford R.M.; Hunt H.V.; Featherstone A.W.; Pellicer J.; Buggs R.J. (2013). "Genome sequence of dwarf birch (Betula nana) and cross-species RAD markers". Mol. Ecol. 22 (11): 3098–3111. doi:10.1111/mec.12131. 

External links[edit]