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Dyauṣ Pitā (द्यौष्पितृ / Dyauṣpitṛ, literally "Sky Father") is the "Father Heaven" deity of the Vedic pantheon, who appears in hymns with Prithvi Mata "Mother Earth" in the ancient scriptures of Hinduism. He is significant in comparative philology scholarship of Proto-Indo-European religion as similar vocative and nominative concepts have been discovered in other languages, such as Iuppiter (Latin), Zευς πατήρ (Greek), Tius or Zio (Old German) and Toutiks dipater (South-Picenean), all of which like Dyaus Pita mean "sky father".
In the Rigveda, Dyaus Pita appears in verses 1.89.4, 1.90.7, 1.164.33, 1.191.6, 4.1.10. and 4.17.4 He is also referred to under different theonyms: Dyavaprthivi, for example, is a dvandva combining 'heaven' and 'earth' as Dyaus Pita and Prithvi Mata.
The name Dyauṣ Pitā is etymologically connected to theonyms such as the Greek Zeus Pater, and closely related to Latin Roman Jupiter. Both Dyauṣ and Zeus stem from a Proto-Indo-European *Dyeus (also Dyḗus Ph2tḗr, alternatively spelled dyēws). This, and many other parallels such as the Indic rain god Parjanyas similarity to Slavic Perun, Lithuanian Perkūnas, and Norse Thor and Fjörgyn led 19th-century scholars to comparative mythology studies and a conjecture that Vedic, post-Vedic, Greek and Roman rituals likely had more ancient Proto-Indo-European roots.
The noun dyaús (when used without the pitā "father") means "sky, heaven" and occurs frequently in the Rigveda, as an entity. The sky in Vedic writing was described as rising in three tiers, avama , madhyama, and uttama or tṛtīya (RV 5.60.6).
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