Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP

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Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH), also known as MPEG-DASH, is an adaptive bitrate streaming technique that enables high quality streaming of media content over the Internet delivered from conventional HTTP web servers. Similar to Apple's HTTP Live Streaming (HLS) solution, MPEG-DASH works by breaking the content into a sequence of small segments, which are served over HTTP. Each segment contains a short interval of playback time of content that is potentially many hours in duration, such as a movie or the live broadcast of a sport event. The content is made available at a variety of different bit rates, i.e., alternative segments encoded at different bit rates covering aligned short intervals of playback time. While the content is being played back by an MPEG-DASH client, the client uses a bit rate adaptation (ABR) algorithm[1] to automatically select the segment with the highest bit rate possible that can be downloaded in time for playback without causing stalls or re-buffering events in the playback.[2] The current MPEG-DASH reference client dash.js[3] offers both buffer-based (BOLA[4]) and hybrid (DYNAMIC[2]) bit rate adaptation algorithms. Thus, an MPEG-DASH client can seamlessly adapt to changing network conditions and provide high quality playback with few stalls or re-buffering events.

MPEG-DASH is the first adaptive bit-rate HTTP-based streaming solution that is an international standard.[5] MPEG-DASH should not be confused with a transport protocol — the transport protocol that MPEG-DASH uses is TCP. MPEG-DASH uses existing HTTP web server infrastructure that is used for delivery of essentially all World Wide Web content. It allows devices like Internet-connected televisions, TV set-top boxes, desktop computers, smartphones, tablets, etc. to consume multimedia content (video, TV, radio, etc.) delivered via the Internet, coping with variable Internet receiving conditions. Standardizing an adaptive streaming solution is meant to provide confidence to the market that the solution can be adopted for universal deployment, compared to similar but more proprietary solutions like Smooth Streaming by Microsoft, or HDS by Adobe. Unlike HDS, or Smooth Streaming, DASH is codec-agnostic, which means it can use content encoded with any coding format, such as H.265, H.264, VP9, etc.[6]

Standardization[edit]

MPEG-DASH technology was developed under MPEG. Work on DASH started in 2010; it became a Draft International Standard in January 2011, and an International Standard in November 2011.[5][7] The MPEG-DASH standard was published in April, 2012 but has been revised in 2019 as MPEG-DASH ISO/IEC 23009-1:2019.

DASH is a technology related to Adobe Systems HTTP Dynamic Streaming, Apple Inc. HTTP Live Streaming (HLS) and Microsoft Smooth Streaming. DASH is based on Adaptive HTTP streaming (AHS) in 3GPP Release 9 and on HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) in Open IPTV Forum Release 2.[8][9] As part of their collaboration with MPEG, 3GPP Release 10 has adopted DASH (with specific codecs and operating modes) for use over wireless networks.[8]

The DASH Industry Forum (DASH-IF)[10] further promotes and catalyzes the adoption of MPEG-DASH and helps transition it from a specification into a real business. It consists of major streaming and media companies, including Microsoft, Netflix, Google, Ericsson, Samsung, Adobe, etc. and creates guidelines on the usage of DASH for different use cases in practice.

MPEG-DASH is integrated in other standards, e.g. MPEG-DASH is supported in HbbTV (as of Version 1.5).[11]

Overview[edit]

DASH is an adaptive bitrate streaming technology where a multimedia file is partitioned into one or more segments and delivered to a client using HTTP.[12] A media presentation description (MPD) describes segment information (timing, URL, media characteristics like video resolution and bit rates), and can be organized in different ways such as SegmentList, SegmentTemplate, SegmentBase and SegmentTimeline, depending on the use case. Segments can contain any media data, however the specification provides specific guidance and formats for use with two types of containers: ISO base media file format (e.g. MP4 file format) or MPEG-2 Transport Stream.

DASH is audio/video codec agnostic. One or more representations (i.e., versions at different resolutions or bit rates) of multimedia files are typically available, and selection can be made based on network conditions, device capabilities and user preferences, enabling adaptive bitrate streaming[13] and QoE (Quality of Experience) fairness.[14] DASH standard does not specify the adaptive bitrate streaming (ABR) logic.[15] DASH is also agnostic to the underlying application layer protocol. Thus, DASH can be used with any protocol, e.g., DASH over CCN.[16]

On July 27, 2015, MPEG LA announced a call for MPEG-DASH-related patents in order to create a single patent pool for this technology.[17] MPEG LA announced its MPEG-DASH patent portfolio licence. MPEG-LA claims that the included patents are essential to the MPEG Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP standard.[18]

Implementations[edit]

MPEG-DASH is available natively on Android through the ExoPlayer,[19] on Samsung Smart TVs 2012+, LG Smart TV 2012+, Sony TV 2012+, Philips NetTV 4.1+, Panasonic Viera 2013+ and Chromecast.[20] YouTube as well as Netflix already support MPEG-DASH, and different MPEG-DASH players are available.[21]

While MPEG-DASH isn't directly supported in HTML5, there are JavaScript implementations of MPEG-DASH which allow using MPEG-DASH in web browsers using the HTML5 Media Source Extensions (MSE).[22] There are also JavaScript implementations such as the bitdash player[23] which support DRM for MPEG-DASH using the HTML5 Encrypted Media Extensions.[24] In combination with WebGL, the HTML5-based adaptive bitrate streaming of MPEG-DASH enables also the efficient streaming of 360° video for live and on-demand use cases.[25]

Clients and libraries[edit]

  • Shaka Player, is the open source DASH HTML5 video player from Google for Low Bandwidth Connections.[26][27][28][29][30]
  • VLC Media Player 3.0 shipped a new client plugin for MP4/MPEG and Live streams.[31][32][33]
  • The cross-platform FOSS multimedia framework GStreamer has supported MPEG-DASH and WebM DASH since at least v1.4.[34]
  • The open-source library libdash[35] is platform independent and runs on mobile platforms such as Android, iOS, Windows Phone.
  • bitmovin provides the bitdash MPEG-DASH player for HTML5 and Flash.[36]
  • VideoJS is an open-source HTML5 video player, supports HLS, DASH, WebM, and progressive MP4 for Live and VOD streaming.[26][27]
  • Clappr is an open-source HTML5 video player, uses HTMLVideoElement, supports DASH, HLS, progressive, ad insertion, dynamic overlays, picture-in-picture[27][26]

Servers[edit]

Note that no specific support is required from the server for DASH content, with the exception of Live Streaming.

Services[edit]

Content generators[edit]

Other[edit]

  • ITEC offers a validation service for MPEG-DASH Media Presentation Description (MPD) files[31]
  • Multiple DASH datasets[53] are offered by the Institute of Information Technology (ITEC) at Alpen-Adria University Klagenfurt,[48][54] the GPAC group at Telecom ParisTech[49] and Digital TV Labs.[55]
  • The BBC has DASH test streams, including DASH over HTTP/2.[56]
  • Widevine DRM supports DASH and Encrypted Media Extensions.[57]
  • Mividi provides software tool for analyzing and monitoring live MPEG-DASH streams.[58]

Supported players and servers[edit]

Clients[edit]

Windows 10 used to have native support for DASH streaming in EdgeHTML, a proprietary browser engine that was used in Microsoft Edge (now referred to as Edge Legacy) before the transition to the Chromium-based Blink browser engine. Edge Legacy was included in Windows 10 up till version 2004. It was replaced by Edge Chromium in version 20H2.

DASH support on other browsers & operating systems is available via Media Source Extensions.

Product Product Type Platform Live Streaming DRM-Free As of Version Editor
Microsoft Edge Web browser Windows 10 Native support on Edge Legacy.

Support via Media Source Extensions on Edge Chromium.

No Supported natively on Edge Legacy's engine EdgeHTML from version 12 to 18.[59]

No native support on Edge Chromium from version 79 to present.[60]

Microsoft
VLC media player Media player Windows, macOS, Linux, Android, iOS, Windows Phone Yes Yes v3.0 VideoLAN
MX Player Media player Android Yes No v1.9.18
Support for playback of DASH streams is currently unstable.
J2 Interactive
NexPlayer SDK HTML5 (MSE Browsers), Android (mobile, TV, STB), iOS, Chromecast, Windows, Mac, Linux, Tizen, WebOS Yes No NexStreaming
Dash.js SDK HTML5 (MSE Browsers) Yes No Dash Industry Forum
Shaka Player SDK HTML5 (MSE Browsers) Yes No Google
Rx-Player SDK HTML5 (MSE Browsers) Yes No Canal+
bitdash SDK HTML5 (MSE Browsers), Android, LG TVs, Samsung TVs, Xbox One, Universal Windows Platform Yes No Bitmovin
PRESTOplay SDK HTML5 (MSE Browsers), Android, iOS, Windows, Mac Yes No castLabs
THEOplayer SDK HTML5 (MSE Browsers), Android (mobile, TV, STB), iOS, Chromecast, Windows, Mac, Linux, Tizen, WebOS Yes No THEO Technologies NV
Viblast Player SDK HTML5 (MSE Browsers), Android, iOS Yes No Viblast Team
Radiant Media Player SDK HTML5 (MSE Browsers), Android, iOS, Windows, Mac, Linux Yes No Radiant Media Player
Videogular SDK HTML5 (MSE Browsers) Yes No
Fluid Player SDK HTML5 (MSE Browsers) Yes No ExoClick
GStreamer Multimedia framework Yes No 1.4 GStreamer Team
Libdash Multimedia framework Yes No bitmovin, ITEC Team
GPAC Multimedia framework Yes No Telecom ParisTech inc.

Patent holders[edit]

Organization Patents[61]
Maxell 15
The Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) 8
Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT) 5
Fraunhofer 4
Columbia University 4
Amotech Co., Ltd. 2
AVerMedia Technologies, Inc. 2
Cable Television Laboratories, Inc. 2
Helios Streaming, LLC 2
JVC Kenwood 1
Lough Corrib Intellectual Property Limited 1

References[edit]

  1. ^ "ABR Logic". GitHub.
  2. ^ a b "From Theory to Practice: Improving Bitrate Adaptation in the DASH Reference Player, by Spiteri, Sitaraman and Sparacio, ACM Multimedia Systems Conference, June 2018" (PDF).
  3. ^ "dash.js JavaScript Reference Client Landing Page". reference.dashif.org. Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  4. ^ Spiteri, Kevin; Urgaonkar, Rahul; Sitaraman, Ramesh K. (2016). "BOLA: Near-optimal bitrate adaptation for online videos. IEEE INFOCOM, 2016, by Spiteri, Urgaonkar, and Sitaraman, IEEE INFOCOM, April 2016". arXiv:1601.06748. doi:10.1109/TNET.2020.2996964. S2CID 219792107. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  5. ^ a b "MPEG ratifies its draft standard for DASH". MPEG. 2011-12-02. Archived from the original on 2012-08-20. Retrieved 2012-08-26.
  6. ^ "MPEG-DASH vs. Apple HLS vs. Microsoft Smooth Streaming vs. Adobe HDS". 2015-03-29. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  7. ^ ISO/IEC DIS 23009-1.2 Dynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP (DASH)
  8. ^ a b ETSI 3GPP 3GPP TS 26.247; Transparent end-to-end packet-switched streaming service (PSS); Progressive Download and Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (3GP-DASH)
  9. ^ Open IPTV Forum Solution Specification Volume 2a – HTTP Adaptive Streaming V2.1 Archived 2011-10-09 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ DASH Industry Forum
  11. ^ HbbTV Specification 1.5 Archived 2014-07-03 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ Overview of Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH)
  13. ^ 3GPP Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP – Standards and Design Principles Archived 2016-08-05 at the Wayback Machine by T. Stockhammer
  14. ^ Towards Network-wide QoE Fairness using OpenFlow-assisted Adaptive Video Streaming
  15. ^ A. Bentaleb, B. Taani, A. Begen, C. Timmermer, and R. Zimmermann, "A Survey on Bitrate Adaptation Schemes for Streaming Media over HTTP", In IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials (IEEE COMST), Volume 1 Issue 1, pp. 1-1, 2018.
  16. ^ Y. Liu, J. Geurts, J.-P. Point, S. Lederer, B. Rainer, C. Mueller, C. Timmerer and H. Hellwagner, "Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over CCN: A Caching and Overhead Analysis", In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communication (ICC) 2013 – Next-Generation Networking Symposium, Budapest, Hungary, June, 2013
  17. ^ MPEG LA Announces Call for Patents to Organize Joint License for MPEG-DASH Archived 2015-08-07 at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ "DASH Patent Portfolio License Briefing*" (PDF). MPEG LA. 2019-03-04. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  19. ^ "ExoPlayer". Android Developers. Retrieved 7 December 2021.
  20. ^ Device Compatibility
  21. ^ The Status of MPEG-DASH today, and why Youtube & Netflix use it in HTML5
  22. ^ HTML5 Media Source Extensions
  23. ^ bitdash DRM Testarea Archived 2015-07-03 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ HTML5 Encrypted Media Extensions
  25. ^ 360° Streaming in HTML5
  26. ^ a b c Vijayanagar, Krishna Rao. "Top 13 HTML5 Video Players for the Web Reviewed [2021]". OTTVerse. Retrieved 7 December 2021.
  27. ^ a b c "clappr dash.js hls.js rx-player shaka-player videojs-contrib-hls". npm trends.com. Retrieved 7 December 2021.
  28. ^ Zhang, Bo; Teixeira, Thiago; Reznik, Yuriy (24 June 2021). "Performance of Low-Latency HTTP-based Streaming Players". Proceedings of the 12th ACM Multimedia Systems Conference: 356–362. doi:10.1145/3458305.3478442.
  29. ^ Cimpanu, Catalin (2015-08-24). "Meet Shaka Player, Google's HTML5 Video Player for Low Bandwidth Conditions". Softpedia. Retrieved 2016-08-13.
  30. ^ "Ultimate HTML5 Video-Player Showdown: 12 Players Compared". Cloudinary. Retrieved 7 December 2021.
  31. ^ a b c DASH at ITEC, VLC Plugin, DASHEncoder and Dataset by C. Mueller, S. Lederer, C. Timmerer
  32. ^ C. Müller and C. Timmerer, "A VLC Media Player Plugin enabling Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP", In Proceedings of the ACM Multimedia 2011 , Scottsdale, Arizona, November 28, 2011.
  33. ^ "VLC 3.0 features".
  34. ^ HTTP Adaptive streaming with GStreamer
  35. ^ libdash: Open-source DASH client library by bitmovin Gmbh
  36. ^ bitdash MPEG-DASH Player Feature Details
  37. ^ "Stream over MPEG-DASH with Wowza Streaming Engine".
  38. ^ "DASH Streaming and Playlists".
  39. ^ MPEG-DASH support in Nimble Streamer
  40. ^ Netview and Unified Streaming streaming DASH
  41. ^ "USP Factsheet". Archived from the original on 2015-04-21. Retrieved 2015-04-17.
  42. ^ Akamai Announces Native MPEG-DASH and HDS Support for Live Video Workflows
  43. ^ "Amazon Elastic Transcoder Now Supports MPEG-DASH". Amazon Web Services, Inc. Retrieved 2016-06-03.
  44. ^ MPEG-DASH and streaming reference and resources
  45. ^ "bitcodin.com Supported Formats". Archived from the original on 2016-03-28. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
  46. ^ "Deliver HLS and MPEG-DASH with the Cloudinary Video Player | Cloudinary".
  47. ^ "Engineering Broadcast: FM and Online". Insanity Radio Tech. Retrieved 7 December 2021.
  48. ^ a b S. Lederer, C. Mueller and C. Timmerer, "Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP Dataset", In Proceedings of the ACM Multimedia Systems Conference 2012, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, February 22-24, 2012.
  49. ^ a b GPAC Telecom ParisTech
  50. ^ dashcast of Telecom ParisTech
  51. ^ "MediaGoom. Essential Web Streaming".
  52. ^ Bento4 MPEG DASH Documentation
  53. ^ MPEG DASH Dataset Overview
  54. ^ S. Lederer, C. Mueller, C. Timmerer, C. Concolato, J. Le Feuvre and K. Fliegel, Distributed DASH Dataset, In Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Multimedia Systems (ACM MMSys) 2013, Oslo, Norway, 2013.
  55. ^ "MPEG DASH Test Suite". Archived from the original on 2014-03-07. Retrieved 2013-11-22.
  56. ^ MPEG DASH Test Streams
  57. ^ "The Complete Guide to Widevine". encoding.com. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
  58. ^ "MPEG-DASH Analysis and Monitoring Solution". mividi.com. Retrieved 2019-09-15.
  59. ^ Simplified Adaptive Video Streaming: Announcing support for HLS and DASH in Windows 10 – IEBlog
  60. ^ Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (MPEG-DASH) | Can I use...
  61. ^ "DASH Patent List" (PDF). MPEG LA. Retrieved 10 July 2019.

External links[edit]