Dynamic range

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Dynamic range, abbreviated DR, DNR,[1] or DYR[2] is the ratio between the largest and smallest values that a certain quantity can assume. It is often used in the context of signals, like sound and light. It is measured either as a ratio or as a base-10 (decibel) or base-2 (doublings, bits or stops) logarithmic value of the difference between the smallest and largest signal values.[3]

Electronically reproduced audio and video is often processed to fit the original material with a wide dynamic range into a narrower recorded dynamic range that can more easily be stored and reproduced; This processing is called dynamic range compression.

Human perception[edit]

Factor (power) Decibels Stops
1 0 0
2 3.01 1
3.16 5 1.66
4 6.02 2
5 6.99 2.32
8 9.03 3
10 10 3.32
16 12.0 4
20 13.0 4.32
31.6 15 4.98
32 15.1 5
50 17.0 5.64
100 20 6.64
1 000 30 9.97
1 024 30.1 10
10 000 40 13.3
100 000 50 16.6
1 000 000 60 19.9
1 048 576 60.2 20
100 000 000 80 26.6
1 073 741 824 90.3 30
10 000 000 000 100 33.2

The human senses of sight and hearing have a very high dynamic range. A human cannot perform these feats of perception at both extremes of the scale at the same time. The eyes take time to adjust to different light levels, and the dynamic range of the human eye in a given scene is actually quite limited due to optical glare. The instantaneous dynamic range of human audio perception is similarly subject to masking so that, for example, a whisper cannot be heard in loud surroundings.

A human is capable of hearing (and usefully discerning) anything from a quiet murmur in a soundproofed room to the loudest heavy metal concert. Such a difference can exceed 100 dB which represents a factor of 100,000 in amplitude and a factor 10,000,000,000 in power.[4][5] The dynamic range of human hearing is roughly 140 dB,[6][7] varying with frequency,[8] from the threshold of hearing (around −9 dB SPL[8][9][10] at 3 kHz) to the threshold of pain (from 120–140 dB SPL[11][12][13]). This wide dynamic range cannot be perceived all at once, however; the tensor tympani, stapedius muscle, and outer hair cells all act as mechanical dynamic range compressors to adjust the sensitivity of the ear to different ambient levels.[14]

A human can see objects in starlight[a] or in bright sunlight, even though on a moonless night objects receive 1/1,000,000,000 of the illumination they would on a bright sunny day; a dynamic range of 90 dB.

In practice, it is difficult for humans to achieve the full dynamic experience using electronic equipment. For example, a good quality LCD has a dynamic range limited to around 1000:1,[b] and some of the latest CMOS image sensors now have measured dynamic ranges of about 23,000:1[15][c] Paper reflectance can produce a dynamic range of about 100:1.[16] A professional video camera such as the Sony Digital Betacam achieves a dynamic range of greater than 90 dB in audio recording.[17]

Audio[edit]

Audio engineers use dynamic range to describe the ratio of the amplitude of the loudest possible undistorted signal to the noise floor, say of a microphone or loudspeaker.[18] Dynamic range is therefore the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the case where the signal is the loudest possible for the system. For example, if the ceiling of a device is 5 V (rms) and the noise floor is 10 µV (rms) then the dynamic range is 500000:1, or 114 dB:

In digital audio theory the dynamic range is limited by quantization error. The maximum achievable dynamic range for a digital audio system with Q-bit uniform quantization is calculated as the ratio of the largest sine-wave rms to rms noise is:[19]

However, the usable dynamic range may be greater, as a properly dithered recording device can record signals well below the noise floor.

The 16-bit compact disc has a theoretical undithered dynamic range of about 96 dB;[20][d] however, the perceived dynamic range of 16-bit audio can be 120 dB or more with noise-shaped dither, taking advantage of the frequency response of the human ear.[21][22]

Digital audio with undithered 20-bit quantization is theoretically capable of 120 dB dynamic range. 24-bit digital audio affords 144 dB dynamic range.[6] Most Digital audio workstations process audio with 32-bit floating-point representation which affords even higher dynamic range and so loss of dynamic range is no longer a concern in terms of digital audio processing. Dynamic range limitations typically result from improper gain staging, recording technique including ambient noise and intentional application of dynamic range compression.

Dynamic range in analog audio is the difference between low-level thermal noise in the electronic circuitry and high-level signal saturation resulting in increased distortion and, if pushed higher, clipping.[23] Multiple noise processes determine the noise floor of a system. Noise can be picked up from microphone self-noise, preamp noise, wiring and interconnection noise, media noise, etc.

Early 78 rpm phonograph discs had a dynamic range of up to 40 dB,[24] soon reduced to 30 dB and worse due to wear from repeated play. Vinyl microgroove phonograph records typically yield 55-65 dB, though the first play of the higher-fidelity outer rings can achieve a dynamic range of 70 dB.[25]

German magnetic tape in 1941 was reported to have had a dynamic range of 60 dB,[26] though modern day restoration experts of such tapes note 45-50 dB as the observed dynamic range.[27] Ampex tape recorders in the 1950s achieved 60 dB in practical usage,[26] In the 1960s, improvements in tape formulation processes resulted in 7 dB greater range,[28]:158 and Ray Dolby developed the Dolby A-Type noise reduction system that increased low- and mid-frequency dynamic range on magnetic tape by 10 dB, and high-frequency by 15 dB, using companding (compression and expansion) of four frequency bands.[28]:169 The peak of professional analog magnetic recording tape technology reached 90 dB dynamic range in the midband frequencies at 3% distortion, or about 80 dB in practical broadband applications.[28]:158 The Dolby SR noise reduction system gave a 20 dB further increased range resulting in 110 dB in the midband frequencies at 3% distortion.[28]:172

Compact Cassette tape performance ranges from 50 to 56 dB depending on tape formulation, with type IV tape tapes giving the greatest dynamic range, and systems such as XDR, dbx and Dolby noise reduction system increasing it further. Specialized bias and record head improvements by Nakamichi and Tandberg combined with Dolby C noise reduction yielded 72 dB dynamic range for the cassette.[citation needed]

The rugged elements of moving-coil microphones can have a dynamic range of up to 140 dB (at increased distortion), while condenser microphones are limited by the overloading of their associated electronic circuitry.[29] Practical considerations of acceptable distortion levels in microphones combined with typical practices in a recording studio result in a useful operating range of 125 dB.[28]:75

In 1981, researchers at Ampex determined that a dynamic range of 118 dB on a dithered digital audio stream was necessary for subjective noise-free playback of music in quiet listening environments.[30]

Since the early 1990s, it has been recommended by several authorities, including the Audio Engineering Society, that measurements of dynamic range be made with an audio signal present, which is then filtered out to get the noise floor.[31] This avoids questionable measurements based on the use of blank media, or muting circuits.

Video[edit]

When showing a movie or a game, a display is able to show both shadowy nighttime scenes and bright outdoor sunlit scenes, but in fact the level of light coming from the display is much the same for both types of scene (perhaps different by a factor of 10). Knowing that the display does not have a huge dynamic range, the producers do not attempt to make the nighttime scenes millions of times less bright than the daytime scenes, but instead use other cues to suggest night or day. A nighttime scene will usually contain duller colours and will often be lit with blue lighting, which reflects the way that the human eye sees colours at low light levels.

Electronics[edit]

Electronics engineers apply the term to:

  • the ratio of a specified maximum level of a parameter, such as power, current, voltage[32] or frequency, to the minimum detectable value of that parameter. (See Audio system measurements.)
  • In a transmission system, the ratio of the overload level (the maximum signal power that the system can tolerate without distortion of the signal) to the noise level of the system.
  • In digital systems or devices, the ratio of maximum and minimum signal levels required to maintain a specified bit error ratio.
  • Optimization of bit width of digital data path (according to the dynamic ranges of signal) can reduce the area, cost, and power consumption of digital circuits and systems while improving their performance. Optimal bit width of digital data path is the smallest bit width that can satisfy the required signal-to-noise ratio and avoid overflow at the same time.[33][34][35][36][37][verification needed]
  • In audio and electronics applications, the ratio involved is often so huge that it is converted to a logarithm and specified in decibels.[32]
  • In digital antenna array before estimation Dynamic range of receivers should be use the correction of nonidentities of their magnitude and phase responses.[32] In this case the Dynamic range determine full limits for use of receivers characteristics correction.

Metrology[edit]

In metrology, such as when performed in support of science, engineering or manufacturing objectives, dynamic range refers to the range of values that can be measured by a sensor or metrology instrument. Often this dynamic range of measurement is limited at one end of the range by saturation of a sensing signal sensor[32] or by physical limits that exist on the motion or other response capability of a mechanical indicator. The other end of the dynamic range of measurement is often limited by one or more sources of random noise or uncertainty in signal levels that may be described as defining the sensitivity of the sensor[32] or metrology device. When digital sensors or sensor signal converters are a component of the sensor or metrology device, the dynamic range of measurement will be also related to the number of binary digits (bits) used in a digital numeric representation in which the measured value is linearly related to the digital number. For example, a 12-bit digital sensor or converter can provide a dynamic range in which the ratio of the maximum measured value to the minimum measured value is up to 212 = 4096. With gamma correction, this limitation can be relaxed somewhat; for example, the 8-bit encoding used in sRGB image encoding represents a maximum to minimum ratio of about 3000.

Metrology systems and devices may use several basic methods to increase their basic dynamic range. These methods include averaging and other forms of filtering, correction of receivers characteristics,[32] repetition of measurements, nonlinear transformations to avoid saturation, etc. In more advance forms of metrology, such as multiwavelength digital holography, interferometry measurements made at different scales (different wavelengths) can be combined to retain the same low-end resolution while extending the upper end of the dynamic range of measurement by orders of magnitude.

Music[edit]

In music, dynamic range is the difference between the quietest and loudest volume of an instrument, part or piece of music.[38] In modern recording, this range is often limited through dynamic range compression, which allows for louder volume, but can make the recording sound less exciting or live.[39]

The term dynamic range may be confusing in music because it has two conflicting definitions, particularly in the understanding of the loudness war phenomenon.[40][41] Dynamic range may refer to micro-dynamics,[42][43][44] related to crest factor,[45][46] whereas the European Broadcasting Union, in EBU3342 Loudness Range, defines dynamic range as the difference between the quietest and loudest volume, a matter of macro-dynamics.[40][41][47][48][49][50]

The dynamic range of music as normally perceived in a concert hall does not exceed 80 dB, and human speech is normally perceived over a range of about 40 dB.[28]:4

Photography[edit]

A scene demanding high dynamic range, taken with the Nikon D7000 digital camera, capable of 13.9 stops of dynamic range per DxOMark.[51] The unedited version of the digital photo is to the left, while the shadows have been pushed heavily in Photoshop to produce the final image on the right. The better the dynamic range of the camera, the more an exposure can be pushed without significantly increasing noise.

Photographers use "dynamic range" for the luminance range of a scene being photographed, or the limits of luminance range that a given digital camera or film can capture,[52] or the opacity range of developed film images, or the "reflectance range" of images on photographic papers.

The dynamic range of digital photography is comparable to the capabilities of photographic film[53] and both are comparable to the capabilities of the human eye.[54]

There are photographic techniques that support higher dynamic range.

  • Graduated neutral density filters are used to decrease the dynamic range of scene luminance that can be captured on photographic film (or on the image sensor of a digital camera): The filter is positioned in front of the lens at the time the exposure is made; the top half is dark and the bottom half is clear. The dark area is placed over a scene's high-intensity region, such as the sky. The result is more even exposure in the focal plane, with increased detail in the shadows and low-light areas. Though this doesn't increase the fixed dynamic range available at the film or sensor, it stretches usable dynamic range in practice.[55]
  • Digital imaging algorithms have been developed to map the image differently in shadow and in highlight in order to better distribute the lighting range across the image. These techniques are known as local tone mapping, and usually involves overcoming the limited dynamic range of the sensor by selectively combining multiple exposures of the same scene in order to retain detail in light and dark areas. The same approach has been used in chemical photography to capture an extremely wide dynamic range: A three-layer film with each underlying layer at 1/100 the sensitivity of the next higher one has, for example, been used to record nuclear-weapons tests.[56]

Consumer-grade image file formats sometimes restrict dynamic range.[57] The most severe dynamic-range limitation in photography may not involve encoding, but rather reproduction to, say, a paper print or computer screen. In that case, not only local tone mapping, but also dynamic range adjustment can be effective in revealing detail throughout light and dark areas: The principle is the same as that of dodging and burning (using different lengths of exposures in different areas when making a photographic print) in the chemical darkroom. The principle is also similar to gain riding or automatic level control in audio work, which serves to keep a signal audible in a noisy listening environment and to avoid peak levels which overload the reproducing equipment, or which are unnaturally or uncomfortably loud.

If a camera sensor is incapable of recording the full dynamic range of a scene, high-dynamic-range (HDR) techniques may be used in postprocessing, which generally involve combining multiple exposures using software.

Dynamic ranges of common devices
Device Stops Contrast ratio
LCD 9.5 (8 – 10.8)[citation needed] 700:1 (250:1 – 1750:1)
Negative film (Kodak VISION3) 13[58] 8000:1
Human eye 10–14[54] 1000:1 – 16000:1
High-end DSLR camera (Nikon D850) 14.8[59] 28500:1
Digital Cinema Camera (Red Weapon 8k) 16.5+[60] 92000:1

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Colour differentiation is reduced at low light levels.
  2. ^ Commercially the dynamic range is often called the contrast ratio meaning the full-on to full-off luminance ratio.
  3. ^ Reported as 14.5 stops, or doublings, equivalent to binary digits.
  4. ^ The 96 dB figure is for a triangle or sine wave. Dynamic range is 98 dB for sine wave[19] (see Quantization noise model).

References[edit]

  1. ^ ISSCC Glossary http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/4242240/4242241/04242527.pdf
  2. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-04-11. Retrieved 2016-08-11., "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-08-22. Retrieved 2016-08-11., "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-08-27. Retrieved 2016-08-11.
  3. ^ "Dynamic range", Electropedia, IEC, archived from the original on 2015-04-26
  4. ^ D. R. Campbell. "Aspects of Human Hearing" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-08-21. Retrieved 2011-04-21. The dynamic range of human hearing is [approximately] 120 dB
  5. ^ "Sensitivity of Human Ear". Archived from the original on 2011-06-04. Retrieved 2011-04-21. The practical dynamic range could be said to be from the threshold of hearing to the threshold of pain [130 dB]
  6. ^ a b Huber, David Miles; Runstein, Robert E. (2009). Modern Recording Techniques (7 ed.). Focal Press. p. 513. ISBN 0-240-81069-4. Archived from the original on 2017-11-20. the overall dynamic range of human hearing roughly encompasses a full 140 dB
  7. ^ "Occupational Noise Exposure, CDC DHHS (NIOSH) Publication Number 98-126". Archived from the original on 2017-07-13.
  8. ^ a b Montgomery, Christopher. "24/192 Music Downloads ...and why they make no sense". xiph.org. Archived from the original on 2016-03-14. Retrieved 2016-03-17. The very quietest perceptible sound is about -8dbSPL
  9. ^ Jones, Pete R (November 20, 2014). "What's the quietest sound a human can hear?" (PDF). University College London. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 24, 2016. Retrieved 2016-03-16. On the other hand, you can also see in Figure 1 that our hearing is slightly more sensitive to frequencies just above 1 kHz, where thresholds can be as low as −9 dBSPL!
  10. ^ Feilding, Charles. "Lecture 007 Hearing II". College of Santa Fe Auditory Theory. Archived from the original on 2016-05-07. Retrieved 2016-03-17. The peak sensitivities shown in this figure are equivalent to a sound pressure amplitude in the sound wave of 10 μPa or: about -6 dB(SPL). Note that this is for monaural listening to a sound presented at the front of the listener. For sounds presented on the listening side of the head there is a rise in peak sensitivity of about 6 dB [−12 dB SPL] due to the increase in pressure caused by reflection from the head.
  11. ^ Newman, Edwin B. (1972-01-01). "Speech and Hearing". American Institute of Physics handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 3–155. ISBN 007001485X. Archived from the original on 2016-03-23. The upper limit for a tolerable intensity of sound rises substantially with increasing habituation. Moreover, a variety of subjective effects are reported, such as discomfort, tickle, pressure, and pain, each at a slightly different level. As a simple engineering estimate it can be said that naive listeners reach a limit at about 125 dB SPL and experienced listeners at 135 to 140 dB.
  12. ^ Nave, Carl R. (2006). "Threshold of Pain". HyperPhysics. SciLinks. Archived from the original on 2009-07-06. Retrieved 2009-06-16. A nominal figure for the threshold of pain is 130 decibels ... Some sources quote 120 dB as the pain threshold
  13. ^ Franks, John R.; Stephenson, Mark R.; Merry, Carol J., eds. (June 1996). Preventing Occupational Hearing Loss - A Practical Guide (PDF). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. p. 88. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2009-04-23. Retrieved 2009-07-15. the threshold for pain is between 120 and 140 dB SPL.
  14. ^ "How The Ear Works". www.soundonsound.com. Archived from the original on 2015-06-06. Retrieved 2016-03-18.
  15. ^ "DXOmark Sensor Ranking". Archived from the original on 2010-05-05. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
  16. ^ "Dynamic Range in Digital Photography". Archived from the original on 2011-07-17. Retrieved 2011-07-11.
  17. ^ "Sony Product Detail Page MSWM2100/1". Sony Pro. Archived from the original on 2012-02-29. Retrieved 2011-12-30.
  18. ^ Ballou Glen M., Handbook for Sound Engineers, 3rd edition, Focal Press 2002, pp. 1107-1108
  19. ^ a b Bernd Seeber (1998). Handbook of applied superconductivity. CRC Press. pp. 1861–1862. ISBN 978-0-7503-0377-4. Archived from the original on 2017-11-20.
  20. ^ Fries, Bruce; Marty Fries (2005). Digital Audio Essentials. O'Reilly Media. p. 147. ISBN 0-596-00856-2. Archived from the original on 2017-01-09. Digital audio at 16-bit resolution has a theoretical dynamic range of 96 dB, but the actual dynamic range is usually lower because of overhead from filters that are built into most audio systems." ... "Audio CDs achieve about a 90-dB signal-to-noise ratio.
  21. ^ Montgomery, Chris (March 25, 2012). "24/192 Music Downloads ...and why they make no sense". xiph.org. Archived from the original on 7 July 2013. Retrieved 26 May 2013. With use of shaped dither, which moves quantization noise energy into frequencies where it's harder to hear, the effective dynamic range of 16 bit audio reaches 120dB in practice, more than fifteen times deeper than the 96dB claim. 120dB is greater than the difference between a mosquito somewhere in the same room and a jackhammer a foot away.... or the difference between a deserted 'soundproof' room and a sound loud enough to cause hearing damage in seconds. 16 bits is enough to store all we can hear, and will be enough forever.
  22. ^ Stuart, J. Robert (1997). "Coding High Quality Digital Audio" (PDF). Meridian Audio Ltd. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-04-07. Retrieved 2016-02-25. One of the great discoveries in PCM was that, by adding a small random noise (that we call dither) the truncation effect can disappear. Even more important was the realisation that there is a right sort of random noise to add, and that when the right dither is used, the resolution of the digital system becomes infinite.
  23. ^ Huber, Runstein 2009, pp. 416, 487 Archived 2017-11-20 at the Wayback Machine.
  24. ^ Audio Engineering Society. E-Library. Jerry B. Minter. April 1956. Recent Developments in Precision Master Recording Lathes Archived 2008-12-11 at the Wayback Machine.
  25. ^ Day, Timothy (2002). A Century of Recorded Music: Listening to Musical History. Yale University Press. p. 23. ISBN 0-300-09401-9. Archived from the original on 2017-11-20.
  26. ^ a b Daniel, Eric D.; C. Denis Mee; Mark H. Clark (1998). Magnetic Recording: The First 100 Years. Wiley-IEEE Press. p. 64. ISBN 0-7803-4709-9.
  27. ^ Richard L. Hess (July–August 2001), The Jack Mullin//Bill Palmer tape restoration project (PDF), Audio Engineering Society, archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-12-01
  28. ^ a b c d e f John Eargle (2005). Handbook of Recording Engineering. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9780387284705.
  29. ^ Huber, Runstein 2009, p. 127 Archived 2017-11-20 at the Wayback Machine.
  30. ^ Audio Engineering Society. E-Library. Louis D. Fielder. May 1981. Dynamic Range Requirement for Subjective Noise Free Reproduction of Music Archived 2008-12-11 at the Wayback Machine.
  31. ^ AES-6id-2000
  32. ^ a b c d e f Slyusar V. I. A method of investigation of the linear dynamic range of reception channels in a digital antenna array// Radio Electronics and Communications Systems c/c of Izvestiia- Vysshie Uchebnye Zavedeniia Radioelektronika. – 2004, Volume 47; Part 9, Pages 20 - 25. – ALLERTON PRESS INC. (USA)"Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-02-05. Retrieved 2017-08-12.
  33. ^ Bin Wu, Jianwen Zhu, Farid Najm, Dynamic Range Estimation. IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 2006. P.1618-1636
  34. ^ Bin Wu, Jianwen Zhu, Farid Najm, An analytical approach for dynamic range estimation In ACM/IEEE 41st Design Automation Conference (DAC-04), San Diego, Calif., June 7–11, 2004.
  35. ^ Bin Wu, Jianwen Zhu, Farid Najm, Dynamic range estimation for nonlinear systems. In IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD-04), San Jose, Calif., November 7–11, 2004.
  36. ^ Bin Wu, Jianwen Zhu, Farid Najm, A non-parametric approach for dynamic range estimation of nonlinear systems. In ACM/IEEE 42nd Design Automation Conference (DAC-05), pages 841–844, 2005.
  37. ^ Bin Wu, Dynamic range estimation for systems with control-flow structures. 13th International Symposium on Quality Electronic Design (ISQED-12),19-21 March 2012
  38. ^ Schmidt, J.C.; Rutledge, J.C. "Multichannel dynamic range compression for music signals". IEEE XPlore. IEEE. doi:10.1109/ICASSP.1996.543295. Archived from the original on 20 November 2017. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
  39. ^ "The Death Of Dynamic Range". CD Mastering Services. Archived from the original on 2008-06-22. Retrieved 2008-07-17.
  40. ^ a b Deruty, Emmanuel (September 2011). "'Dynamic Range' & The Loudness War". Sound on Sound. Archived from the original on 2013-11-08. Retrieved 2013-10-24.
  41. ^ a b Emmanuel Deruty; Damien Tardieu (January 2014). "About Dynamic Processing in Mainstream Music". Journal of the Audio Engineering Society. Archived from the original on 2014-10-25. Retrieved 2014-06-06.
  42. ^ Katz, Robert (2002). "9". Mastering Audio. Amsterdam: Boston. p. 109. ISBN 0-240-80545-3.
  43. ^ Ian Shepherd. "Why the Loudness War hasn't reduced 'Loudness Range'". Archived from the original on 2014-02-09. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
  44. ^ Jason Victor Serinus. "Winning the Loudness Wars". Stereophile. Archived from the original on 2014-02-09. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
  45. ^ Earl Vickers (November 4, 2010). "The Loudness War: Background, Speculation and Recommendations" (PDF). AES 2010: Paper Sessions: Loudness and Dynamics. San Francisco: Audio Engineering Society. Retrieved July 14, 2011.
  46. ^ "Dynamic Range Meter". Archived from the original on 2014-10-27. Retrieved 2018-11-27.
  47. ^ Tech 3342 - Loudness Range: a Measure to Supplement EBU R 128 Loudness Normalization (PDF), European Broadcasting Union, archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-06-08, retrieved 2016-07-30
  48. ^ Serrà, J; Corral, A; Boguñá, M; Haro, M; Arcos, JL (26 July 2012). "Measuring the Evolution of Contemporary Western Popular Music". Scientific Reports. 2: 521. arXiv:1205.5651. Bibcode:2012NatSR...2E.521S. doi:10.1038/srep00521. PMC 3405292. PMID 22837813. Archived from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  49. ^ Jens Hjortkjær; Mads Walther-Hansen (January 2014). "Perceptual Effects of Dynamic Range Compression in Popular Music Recordings". Journal of the Audio Engineering Society. Archived from the original on 2014-10-06. Retrieved 2014-06-06. (Subscription required (help)).
  50. ^ Esben Skovenborg (April 2012). "Loudness Range (LRA) – Design and Evaluation". AES 132nd Convention. Archived from the original on 2014-10-25. Retrieved 2014-10-25. (Subscription required (help)).
  51. ^ "Nikon D7000 : Tests and Reviews". DxO Labs. Retrieved December 30, 2017.
  52. ^ Karol Myszkowski; Rafal Mantiuk; Grzegorz Krawczyk (2008). High Dynamic Range Video. Morgan & Claypool Publishers. ISBN 978-1-59829-214-5. Archived from the original on 2014-01-08.
  53. ^ Michael Archambault (2015-05-26). "Film vs. Digital: A Comparison of the Advantages and Disadvantages". Archived from the original on 2016-06-17. Retrieved 2016-07-14.
  54. ^ a b "Dynamic Range in Digital Photography". PetaPixel. Archived from the original on 2016-07-08. Retrieved 2016-07-14.
  55. ^ Rob Sheppard (2006). The Magic of Digital Nature Photography. Sterling Publishing Company. ISBN 978-1-57990-773-0.
  56. ^ The Militarily Critical Technologies List Archived 2010-06-15 at the Wayback Machine. (1998), pages II-5-100 and II-5-107.
  57. ^ "RAW vs. JPEG Overview". SLR Lounge. Archived from the original on 2016-08-17. Retrieved 2016-07-14.
  58. ^ "Dynamic Range".[permanent dead link]
  59. ^ "Nikon D850 : Tests and Reviews". DxO Labs. Retrieved December 30, 2017.
  60. ^ "Red Weapon 8k Rating by DxOMark". Archived from the original on 2017-06-19.

External list[edit]