Dyslexia support in the United Kingdom
This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
People with dyslexia, especially school children, can benefit from a range of support techniques including additional one-to-one literacy support from specialist teachers, computer tools with text-to-speech, spelling correction and word prediction; coloured glasses, and many other methods. The techniques chosen for an individual vary according to their particular conditions.
Duty to Diagnose and Support
Schools and other institutions have a legal duty not to discriminate unfairly against people with dyslexia, under the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (UK). Schools and academic institutions must also detect the condition in order to provide the appropriate support.
Legal Precedent in England
In the English law case of Skipper v Calderdale Metropolitan Borough School (2006) EWCA Civ 238, the Court of Appeal applied Phelps v London Borough of Hillingdon (2001) 2 AC 619 as the landmark case on the failure to diagnose dyslexia, in accordance with duty of care in English law, and to hold that the appellant could pursue her claim against her school for humiliation, lost confidence, and lost self-esteem, and for loss of earnings following its failing to diagnose and treat her dyslexia despite the fact that, as Latham LJ. The ruling states in paragraph 29:
- "The extent to which her dyslexia could have been ameliorated or provided for will always remain uncertain, as will the extent to which that would have affected her performance in public examinations; the evidence that we have includes material to suggest that she, not surprisingly, reacted adversely to the break-up of her parents marriage when she was 15, in other words at a critical time in her education. Whether any improvement in her examination results would have led to her life taking a significantly different course will also be a matter for some speculation."
In England and Wales, the failure of schools to diagnose and provide remedial can help for dyslexia following the House of Lords decision in the case of Pamela Phelps has created an entitlement for students with dyslexia in Higher education to receive support funded via the Disabled Students Allowance. Support can take the form of IT equipment (software and hardware) as well as personal assistance, also known as non-medical helper support. Dyslexic students will also be entitled to special provision in examinations such as additional time to allow them to read and comprehend exam questions.
Disability Discrimination Act 1995
The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (UK) includes those who have dyslexia as having a disability. There have been additional legislation in subsequent years widening the scope of the 1995 Act.
- "In some cases, people have 'coping strategies' which cease to work in certain circumstances (for example, where someone who stutters or has dyslexia is placed under stress). If it is possible that a person's ability to manage the effects of the impairment will break down so that these effects will sometimes occur, this possibility must be taken into account when assessing the effects of the impairment." — Paragraph A8, Guidance to the Definitions of Disability.
Countries within the UK
As part of devolution each country within the UK may have different ways of dealing with the issue.
Northern Ireland Dyslexia Association
- Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (UK)
- Education (Additional Support for Learning) (Scotland) Act 2004
- Qualified specialist dyslexia teachers
- Special Educational Needs In the UK
- Teaching and Learning Research Programme
- British Dyslexics
- The Council for the Registration of Schools Teaching Dyslexic Pupils
- Help for Parents of Dyslexic Children
- The Bercow Report
- Sir Jim Rose Presents Findings of Review into Dyslexia
- Identifying and Teaching Children and Young People with Dyslexia and Literacy Difficulties
- Dyslexia Association Birmingham