Dyslipidemia is an abnormal amount of lipids (e.g., cholesterol and/or fat) in the blood. In developed countries, most dyslipidemias are hyperlipidemias; that is, an elevation of lipids in the blood. This is often due to diet and lifestyle. Prolonged elevation of insulin levels can also lead to dyslipidemia. Likewise, increased levels of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) may cause dyslipidemia.
Physicians and basic researchers classify dyslipidemias in two distinct ways:
Phenotype, or the presentation in the body (including the specific type of lipid that is increased)
Etiology, or the reason for the condition (genetic, or secondary to another condition). This classification can be problematic, because most conditions involve the intersection of genetics and lifestyle issues. However, there are a few well-defined genetic conditions that are usually easy to identify.