Dystroglycan

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DAG1
Protein DAG1 PDB 1u2c.png
Available structures
PDBOrtholog search: PDBe RCSB
Identifiers
AliasesDAG1, 156DAG, A3a, AGRNR, DAG, MDDGC7, MDDGC9, MDDGA9, dystroglycan 1, LGMDR16
External IDsOMIM: 128239 MGI: 101864 HomoloGene: 3234 GeneCards: DAG1
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)
RefSeq (protein)
Location (UCSC)Chr 3: 49.47 – 49.54 MbChr 9: 108.08 – 108.14 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
Wikidata
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

Dystroglycan is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DAG1 gene.[5][6][7]

Dystroglycan is one of the dystrophin-associated glycoproteins, which is encoded by a 5.5 kb transcript in Homo sapiens on chromosome 3.[8] There are two exons that are separated by a large intron. The spliced exons code for a protein product that is finally cleaved into two non-covalently associated subunits, [alpha] (N-terminal) and [beta] (C-terminal).

Function[edit]

In skeletal muscle the dystroglycan complex works as a transmembrane linkage between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton. [alpha]-dystroglycan is extracellular and binds to merosin [alpha]-2 laminin in the basement membrane, while [beta]-dystroglycan is a transmembrane protein and binds to dystrophin, which is a large rod-like cytoskeletal protein, absent in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients. Dystrophin binds to intracellular actin cables. In this way, the dystroglycan complex, which links the extracellular matrix to the intracellular actin cables, is thought to provide structural integrity in muscle tissues. The dystroglycan complex is also known to serve as an agrin receptor in muscle, where it may regulate agrin-induced acetylcholine receptor clustering at the neuromuscular junction. There is also evidence which suggests the function of dystroglycan as a part of the signal transduction pathway because it is shown that Grb2, a mediator of the Ras-related signal pathway, can interact with the cytoplasmic domain of dystroglycan.

Expression[edit]

Dystroglycan is widely distributed in non-muscle tissues as well as in muscle tissues. During epithelial morphogenesis of kidney, the dystroglycan complex is shown to act as a receptor for the basement membrane. Dystroglycan expression in Mus musculus brain and neural retina has also been reported. However, the physiological role of dystroglycan in non-muscle tissues remains unclear.

Interactions[edit]

Dystroglycan has been shown to interact with FYN,[9] C-src tyrosine kinase,[9] Src,[9] NCK1,[9] Grb2,[10] Caveolin 3[11] and SHC1.[9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000173402 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000039952 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  5. ^ Skynner MJ, Gangadharan U, Coulton GR, Mason RM, Nikitopoulou A, Brown SD, Blanco G (Jan 1995). "Genetic mapping of the mouse neuromuscular mutation kyphoscoliosis". Genomics. 25 (1): 207–13. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(95)80127-8. PMID 7774920.
  6. ^ Ibraghimov-Beskrovnaya O, Ervasti JM, Leveille CJ, Slaughter CA, Sernett SW, Campbell KP (Feb 1992). "Primary structure of dystrophin-associated glycoproteins linking dystrophin to the extracellular matrix". Nature. 355 (6362): 696–702. Bibcode:1992Natur.355..696I. doi:10.1038/355696a0. PMID 1741056. S2CID 4273337.
  7. ^ "Entrez Gene: DAG1 dystroglycan 1 (dystrophin-associated glycoprotein 1)".
  8. ^ Spence HJ, Dhillon AS, James M, Winder SJ (May 2004). "Dystroglycan, a scaffold for the ERK-MAP kinase cascade". EMBO Reports. 5 (5): 484–9. doi:10.1038/sj.embor.7400140. PMC 1299052. PMID 15071496.
  9. ^ a b c d e Sotgia F, Lee H, Bedford MT, Petrucci T, Sudol M, Lisanti MP (Dec 2001). "Tyrosine phosphorylation of beta-dystroglycan at its WW domain binding motif, PPxY, recruits SH2 domain containing proteins". Biochemistry. 40 (48): 14585–92. doi:10.1021/bi011247r. PMID 11724572.
  10. ^ Yang B, Jung D, Motto D, Meyer J, Koretzky G, Campbell KP (May 1995). "SH3 domain-mediated interaction of dystroglycan and Grb2". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 (20): 11711–4. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.20.11711. PMID 7744812.
  11. ^ Sotgia F, Lee JK, Das K, Bedford M, Petrucci TC, Macioce P, Sargiacomo M, Bricarelli FD, Minetti C, Sudol M, Lisanti MP (Dec 2000). "Caveolin-3 directly interacts with the C-terminal tail of beta -dystroglycan. Identification of a central WW-like domain within caveolin family members". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (48): 38048–58. doi:10.1074/jbc.M005321200. PMID 10988290.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]