Dzyarzhynsk

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Dzyarzhynsk
Дзяржынск (Belarusian)
Дзержинск (Russian)
Flag of Dzyarzhynsk
Flag
Official seal of Dzyarzhynsk
Seal
Dzyarzhynsk is located in Belarus
Dzyarzhynsk
Dzyarzhynsk
Coordinates: 53°41′00″N 27°08′00″E / 53.68333°N 27.13333°E / 53.68333; 27.13333
Country  Belarus
Voblast Minsk Region
Raion Dzyarzhynsk Raion
Founded 1146
Population (2009)[1]
 • Total 25,164
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 222720
Area code(s) +375 1716
License plate 5
Website Official website

Dzyarzhynsk or Dzerzhinsk; formerly Koydanava (Belarusian: Дзяржы́нск Dziaržynsk [dzʲarˈʐɨnsk]; Russian: Дзержинск, Polish: Kojdanów; Yiddish: קוידנוב‎, Koidanov, Lithuanian: Kaidanava), in the Dzyarzhynsk Raion of Belarus, is a city with a history dating to the 11th century.

History[edit]

In the Middle Ages, the village, then called Kojdanów, belonged to the Radziwiłłs, a Polish aristocratic family. It was known as Kojdanava / Koidanova townlet of Vilna Governorate of the Russian Empire.

Jews lived in Koidanova as early as 1620.[2]

Jewish community[edit]

Koidanova became the site of a new Hasidic Jewish dynasty in 1833 when Rabbi Shlomo Chaim Perlow (1797–1862) became the first Koidanover Rebbe.[3] He was succeeded by his son, Rabbi Boruch Mordechai Perlow (1818–1870), grandson, Rabbi Aharon Perlow (1839–1897), and great-grandson, Rabbi Yosef Perlow of Koidanov-Minsk (1854-1915), who was the last Koidanover Rebbe to live in the town. After World War I, the dynasty was moved to Baranovichi, Poland.[4]

In 1847, Koidanova had 2,497 Jewish inhabitants.[2] In 1897 the city had a total population of 4,744, of whom 3,156 were Jews.[5]

In May 1932 it was granted the status of a city and was renamed Kojdanaŭ (Belarusian: Койданаў), Russian: Koidanov. In June of that year it was renamed again as Dziaržynsk by the Communist authorities, in honor of Felix Dzerzhinsky (1877–1926), a famous Bolshevik creator and chief of the "Cherezvychainaya Komissija" (CHEKA) – the Soviet secret police -who was born in a Dziaržynava estate not far from the city.[2]

The city was the capital of the short-lived Dzierzynszczyzna Polish Autonomous District during 1932–38.[2]

World War II[edit]

It fell under German occupation during World War II. It was captured on June 28, 1941.

The Lithuanian Twelfth Schutzmannschaft (auxiliary police) Battalion's 1st Company, led by Lieutenant Z. Kemzura, massacred between 1,000 and 1,900 Jews from the city on October 21, 1941, shooting them and throwing them into a pit; many were buried alive.[6][7][8] As it is reported in The Complete Black Book of Russian Jewry: "For three hours the earth covering the mass grave would move; people still alive were trying to crawl out of their grave."[8] In July 1942, the Einsatzgruppen killed several thousand Jews in Koidanov.[9] The city was liberated by the Soviet Red Army on July 6, 1944.[2]

Modern day[edit]

In 1998, the city had 24,700 inhabitants.[10]

Now part of Belarus, the name Kojdanava (Belarusian: Койданава) is becoming popular again (it is the official name for the railway station of Dziarzhynsk), but the official name remains unchanged.

Geography[edit]

The highest point of Belarus, Dziaržynskaja Hara, is several kilometers from Dziaržynsk.

Transport[edit]

There is a railway road across the city from Minsk Passazhirsky to Baranovichi Polesskie.

There is only one bus route in Dziarzhynsk, that has 18 stops.

Notable residents[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Belarus: largest cities and towns and statistics of their population". World Gazetteer. Archived from the original on January 11, 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d e "Koidanova". Beljews.info. Retrieved August 20, 2011. 
  3. ^ Glassman, Deborah G. (2004). "Rabbonim, Rebbes, and Crown Rabbis, of Lyakhovichi". JewishGen. Retrieved June 20, 2012. 
  4. ^ Nadler, Allen (2010). "Koidanov Hasidic Dynasty". The YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe. Retrieved June 20, 2012. 
  5. ^ "Jewish population of Minsk uezd according to the 1897 Russian Census". beljews.info. Retrieved June 20, 2012. 
  6. ^ "Jewish Heritage Research Group in Belarus". Jhrgbelarus.org. October 21, 1941. Retrieved August 20, 2011. 
  7. ^ Breitman, Richard (1997). "Himmler's Police Auxiliaries in the Occupied Soviet Territories". Simon Wiesenthal Center Multimedia Learning Center. Archived from the original on July 27, 2011. Retrieved August 20, 2011. 
  8. ^ a b Patterson, David (June 13, 2003). The Complete Black Book of Russian Jewry. ISBN 9781412820073. Retrieved August 20, 2011. 
  9. ^ United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (1995). Historical Atlas of the Holocaust. Macmillan / Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0028974514.  See in Routes to Roots Foundation, Inc. Archived August 21, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ "BELARUS: urban population". Populstat.info. Retrieved August 20, 2011. 

External links[edit]