E♭ (musical note)
It lies a diatonic semitone above D and a chromatic semitone below E, thus being enharmonic to D♯ (D-sharp) or re dièse. In equal temperament it is also enharmonic with F. However, in some temperaments, D♯ is not the same as E♭. E♭ is a perfect fourth above B♭, whereas D♯ is a major third above B.
When calculated in equal temperament with a reference of A above middle C as 440 Hz, the frequency of the E♭ above middle C (or E♭4) is approximately 311.127 Hz. See pitch (music) for a discussion of historical variations in frequency.
In German nomenclature, it is known as Es, sometimes (especially in the context of musical motifs) abbreviated to S.
Well-known compositions in E-flat major
The prelude to Richard Wagner's Das Rheingold is a famous piece of drone music that begin with a low E flat and builds to more and more elaborate figurations of the chord of E flat major. It is used in this opera to portray the motion of the river Rhine.
Beethoven's Piano Concerto No. 5 (also known as The Emperor) and Symphony No. 3 (also known as the Eroica) are two more well-known piece set in the key of E-flat major. Robert Schumann's Symphony No. 3 (also known as the Rhenish Symphony) is yet another.
Designation by octave
|Scientific designation||Helmholtz designation||Octave name||Frequency (Hz)|
|E♭−1||E♭͵͵͵ or ͵͵͵E♭ or EEEE♭||Subsubcontra||9.723|
|E♭0||E♭͵͵ or ͵͵E♭ or EEE♭||Subcontra||19.445|
|E♭1||E♭͵ or ͵E♭ or EE♭||Contra||38.891|
Common scales beginning on E♭
- E♭ Major: E♭ F G A♭ B♭ C D E♭
- E♭ Natural Minor: E♭ F G♭ A♭ B♭ C♭ D♭ E♭
- E♭ Harmonic Minor: E♭ F G♭ A♭ B♭ C♭ D E♭
- E♭ Melodic Minor Ascending: E♭ F G♭ A♭ B♭ C D E♭
- E♭ Melodic Minor Descending: E♭ D♭ C♭ B♭ A♭ G♭ F E♭
- E♭ Ionian: E♭ F G A♭ B♭ C D E♭
- E♭ Dorian: E♭ F G♭ A♭ B♭ C D♭ E♭
- E♭ Phrygian: E♭ F♭ G♭ A♭ B♭ C♭ D♭ E♭
- E♭ Lydian: E♭ F G A B♭ C D E♭
- E♭ Mixolydian: E♭ F G A♭ B♭ C D♭ E♭
- E♭ Aeolian: E♭ F G♭ A♭ B♭ C♭ D♭ E♭
- E♭ Locrian: E♭ F♭ G♭ A♭ B C♭ D♭ E♭
- E♭ Ascending Melodic Minor: E♭ F G♭ A♭ B♭ C D E♭
- E♭ Dorian ♭2: E♭ F♭ G♭ A♭ B♭ C D♭ E♭
- E♭ Lydian Augmented: E♭ F G A B C D E♭
- E♭ Lydian Dominant: E♭ F G A B♭ C D♭ E♭
- E♭ Mixolydian ♭6: E♭ F G A♭ B♭ C♭ D♭ E♭
- E♭ Locrian ♮2: E♭ F G♭ A♭ B C♭ D♭ E♭
- E♭ Altered: E♭ F♭ G♭ A B C♭ D♭ E♭