E. Herbert Norman
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Egerton Herbert Norman
|Born||September 1, 1909|
|Died||April 4, 1957 (aged 47)|
|Occupation||Canadian diplomat, historian|
Egerton Herbert Norman (September 1, 1909 – April 4, 1957) was a Canadian diplomat and historian. Born in Japan to missionary parents, he became an historian of modern Japan before joining the Canadian foreign service. His most influential book was Japan's Emergence as a Modern State (1940) where he argued that persisting feudal class relations were responsible for government oppression at home and the imperialistic expansion that led to World War II in Asia. During the Red Scare of the 1950s Norman was accused of being a communist or even a spy, though investigations found no corroboration and he was defended by Canadian authorities. He committed suicide in 1957.
Early life and education
Born and raised in Karuizawa, Japan where his father, Daniel Norman, was a Canadian Methodist missionary in Nagano province. He studied at Victoria College at the University of Toronto. In 1933–1936, he studied at Trinity College at Cambridge University. These were the years when Socialist Party students often moved to the left to join the Communist Party, and Norman came under the tutelage of John Cornford, who soon went to Spain and was killed in the Spanish Civil War. However, while his politics were left leaning, there is a controversy as to whether he became a communist and, more importantly, whether he was a Soviet spy afterward, as were other Trinity students, such as Guy Burgess.
Norman entered the graduate program in Japanese history at Harvard University in 1936, where he studied under Serge Elisséeff, the Russian émigrée Japanologist. He joined the Canadian foreign service in 1939 and received his doctorate from Harvard in 1940. During his time in England, he was a Marxist. "[H]e became heavily involved in the Socialist community and left wing student politics. There are numerous reports suggesting that he would spend his free time recruiting new students into the student socialist body.
His elder brother, Howard, who also became a missionary, worked in Canada during World War II to support Japanese who were placed in internment camps.
His first post was with the Canadian Legation in Tokyo. Following the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, Norman was interned by the Japanese authorities and he was not repatriated to Canada until mid-1942, where he continued to work in the Department of External Affairs, heading up the Special Intelligence Unit in Ottawa. This Unit prepared biweekly intelligence reports on Japan and the Far East, using mostly decoded messages from the Examination Unit as well as other sources. During the Allied occupation of Japan after its defeat in the war, Norman served as a Canadian representative to the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP) administration and worked under the direction of Douglas MacArthur. He also became the first post-war president of the Asiatic Society of Japan. Using a close relation to MacArthur, he played a decisive role in the decision of the SCAP in 1946 to ban all Japanese political parties except Japanese Communist Party (JCP). Alongside his diplomatic activities, Norman remained an active scholar and wrote a number of works on Japanese history, with clear political leaning toward left. This caused accusation that he was a Communist sympathizer and Soviet agent, which remain unproven.
Controversy and suicide
Between 1950 and 1952, Norman was accused of being a Communist and possibly a Soviet agent. Allegations centred on his involvement with communist societies during his university years, and suspicion of decisions he helped make during the Japanese occupation, including allowing the Japanese Communist Party to continue while other parties were banned. Karl August Wittfogel, in August 1951, named Norman as having been a member of a "communist study group" while he was at Columbia in 1939. Lester Pearson, Secretary of State for External Affairs, immediately told the Canadian press that "reports" of Norman's leftist tendencies had been fully investigated and had resulted in a "clean bill of health." The Senate subcommittee then summoned another ex-communist to testify, Elizabeth Bentley, who named Pearson himself. Norman then admitted under a harsher interrogation by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police that he had indeed been close to communists in his days in Cambridge, though he denied having been a member of the party.
Pearson, however, continued to have faith in Norman. Norman was made High Commissioner to New Zealand, both to placate American authorities and to isolate him from the stress and scrutiny of American intelligence. In 1955 Pearson offered him the ambassadorship to Egypt. Norman arrived on the eve of the Suez Crisis of late 1956, and played a key role as a neutral between the Egyptian leader Gamal Abdel Nasser and the western powers. As negotiations developed among the Americans, British, Israelis, and Egyptians, some in the American government feared that Nasser was becoming pro-Soviet and that Norman was abetting him. The Senate subcommittee raised Norman's name once again, using confidential files that had been given to them by the Canadian government. 
In April 1957, Norman committed suicide by jumping off the roof of the Swedish Embassy. It was an eight-storey apartment building in which Brynolf Eng, the Swedish Minister in Cairo occupied the top floor apartment. Norman left a brief suicide note asserting his innocence. John Howes suggested that Norman took his life because he was concerned that the Communist allegations could jeopardize the negotiations during the Suez Crisis. The Canadian public at the time was horrified, and the incident caused harm to Canada-U.S. relations.
The circumstances surrounding Norman's death continue to provoke controversy. In 1990, Canadian Minister of External Affairs Joe Clark commissioned Peyton Lyon to review all Canadian government files on Norman and "clarify his allegiance to Canada ... and any relationship he may have had with the Soviet Union." Lyon reported that Norman was not a spy; that he was a sympathiser with Communism and the Soviet Union before joining public service in 1939; that he was not a member of the Communist Party of Canada; and that he did not lie but "understated" his degree of commitment to Marxism and his leftist activities. He debated the conclusions of Professor James Barros' 1986 book detailing Norman's links to Communist groups.
- Norman, E. Herbert (1940). Japan's Emergence as a Modern State: Political and Economic Problems of the Meiji Period. International Secretariat, Institute of Pacific Relations.
- ——— (2000). Japan's Emergence as a Modern State : Political and Economic Problems of the Meiji Period. 60th Anniversary Edition; edited by Lawrence T. Woods. Vancouver: UBC Press. ISBN 978-0774808224. Includes an Introduction by the editor, 10 short essays, including: Herbert P. Bix, "Rereading E.H. Norman,"; Roger Bowen, "Herbert Norman: Engaged Scholar, Civilized Man"; John W. Dower, "The Historian and His TImes".
- ——— (1943). Soldier and Peasant in Japan: The Origins of Conscription. International Secretariat, Institute of Pacific Relations.
- ——— (1949). Ando Shoeki and the Anatomy of Japanese Feudalism. Asiatic Society of Japan.
- ——— (1975). Origins of the Modern Japanese State: Selected Writings of E. H. Norman. edited and with an Introduction by John W. Dower. Random House.
- John Howes (December 12, 1994). "Japan in Canadian Culture". Canadian Embassy, Tokyo, Japan: The Asiatic Society of Japan. Archived from the original on April 30, 2003. Cite journal requires
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- English (1992), p. Online Ch. Four “Suez”.
- Mark Perkins, "Was E. Herbert Norman Really a Spy?" The Art of Polemics September 15, 2014
- Pepall, Diana (January 2017). Canada's Bletchley Park: The Examination Unit in Ottawa's Sandy Hill 1941-1945. Ottawa, ON, Canada: Historical Society of Ottawa. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-920960-43-1.
- Knight, Amy (2005). How the Cold War Began. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart LMT. p. 266. ISBN 978-0-7710-9577-1.
- Lyon (1991), p. 220-221.
- "The stage lures back one of its own: Timothy Findley". Ottawa Citizen, April 29, 1993.
References and further reading
- Akami, Tomoko (2002). Internationalizing the Pacific: The United States, Japan, and the Institute of Pacific Relations in War and Peace, 1919-45. London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415220347.
- Akita, George (1977). "An Examination of EH Norman's Scholarship". Journal of Japanese Studies. 3 (2): 375–419. doi:10.2307/132117. JSTOR 132117.
- Barros, James. No sense of evil : espionage, the case of Herbert Norman. Toronto: Deneau, 1986.
- Bix, Herbert P. (1978). "The Pitfalls of Scholastic Criticism: A Reply to Norman's Critics". Journal of Japanese Studies. 4 (2): 391–411. doi:10.2307/132031. JSTOR 132031.
- Bowen, Roger W. (1984). E.H. Norman, His Life and Scholarship. Toronto ; Buffalo: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0802025050. Consists chiefly of edited papers from a conference held at St. Mary's University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, 18–20 October 1979.
- ——— (1986). Innocence Is Not Enough : The Life and Death of Herbert Norman. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre. ISBN 978-0888944931.
- English, John (1992). The Worldly Years: The Life of Lester Pearson, Volume II: 1949-1972. Toronto: Vintage Books Canada. ISBN 978-0-307-37539-1.
- Evans, M. Stanton (2007). Blacklisted by History: The Untold Story of Senator Joe Mccarthy and His Fight against America's Enemies. New York: Crown Forum.
- Lyon, Peyton V. (1991). "The Loyalties of E. Herbert Norman". Labour / Le Travail. 28: 219–259. doi:10.2307/25143512. JSTOR 25143512.
- Maruyama Masao. "An Affection for the Lesser Names: An Appreciation of E. Herbert Norman (in Notes and Comment)." Pacific Affairs, September 1957, 249–53.
- Knight, Amy. "How the Cold War Began." Chapter 9 "Death of a Diplomat." New York: Carroll & Graf, 2005.
- Price, John (2007). "Herbert Norman, the Occupation of Japan, and Canada-U.S. Relations. A Canadian Critique of MacArthur and the Occupation". Japan Focus. 5 (5).
- Death of a Diplomat: Herbert Norman & The Cold War Great Unsolved Mysteries in Canadian History,
- E. H. Norman Digital Archive
- Radio clip from CBC, April 4, 1957
- Feature from Canadian Mysteries
- The Man Who Might Have Been: An Inquiry into the Life and Death of Herbert Norman (1998 documentary film) at the National Film Board of Canada