Brilliant Blue FCF
3D model (JSmol)
|E number||E133 (colours)|
|Molar mass||792.85 g/mol|
|S-phrases (outdated)||S24/25 S28 S37 S45|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|‹See TfM› (what is ‹See TfM› ?)|
Brilliant Blue FCF (Blue 1) is an organic compound classified as a triarylmethane dye and a blue azo dye, reflecting its chemical structure. Known under various commercial names, it is a colorant for foods and other substances. It is denoted by E number E133 and has a color index of 42090. It has the appearance of a blue powder. It is soluble in water, and the solution has a maximum absorption at about 628 nanometers.
It is a synthetic dye produced by the condensation of 2-formylbenzenesulfonic acid and the appropriate aniline followed by oxidation. It can be combined with tartrazine (yellow 5) (E102) to produce various shades of green.
It is usually a disodium salt. The diammonium salt has CAS number lake. The chemical formation is C37H34N2Na2O9S3.. Calcium and potassium salts are also permitted. It can also appear as an aluminum
Related dyes are C.I. acid green 3 (CAS#4680-78-8) and acid green 9 (CAS#4857-81-2). In these dyes, the 2-sulfonic acid group is replaced by H and Cl, respectively.
As a blue color, Brilliant Blue FCF is often found in ice cream, canned processed peas, packet soups, bottled food colorings, icings, ice pops, blueberry flavored products, dairy products, sweets and drinks, especially the liqueur Blue Curaçao. It is also used in soaps, shampoos, mouthwash and other hygiene and cosmetics applications. In soil science, Brilliant Blue is applied in tracing studies to visualize infiltration and water distribution in the soil. In the United States, of the two approved blue dyes (the other being Indigo carmine, or FD&C Blue #2), Brilliant Blue FCF is the more common of the two.
Health and safety
The dye is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and 95% of the ingested dye can be found in the feces.
When applied to the tongue or shaved skin, Brilliant Blue FCF can be absorbed directly into the bloodstream.
Brilliant Blue FCF is an approved food colorant and pharmacologically inactive substance for drug formulations in the EU and the United States. It is also legal in other countries. It has the capacity for inducing allergic reactions in individuals with pre-existing moderate asthma. In 2003, the U.S. FDA issued a public health advisory to warn health care providers of the potential toxicity of this synthetic dye in enteral feeding solutions. The following legal limits apply in the EU (E 131) and other countries: 150–300 mg/kg depending on the type of food. Safety limit for foods and drugs: 0.1 mg/day per kg body weight. The ADI for Brilliant Blue FCF is 6 mg/kg.
Scientists who were conducting in-vivo studies of compounds to lessen the severity of inflammation following experimental spinal cord injury had previously tested a compound called OxATP to block a key ATP receptor in spinal neurons. However, OxATP has toxic side effects and must be injected directly into the spinal cord; in searching for alternatives they noted that Brilliant Blue FCF has a similar structure. This led them to test a related dye, Brilliant Blue G (also known as Coomassie Brilliant Blue) in rats, which improved recovery from spinal cord injury while temporarily turning them blue.
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porcine tongue dorsum was exposed to human saliva with 15,000 ng/cm2 of dye for 20 min. 24-h diffusion resulted in 34 ng/cm2 of BB and 86 ng/cm2 of PB which can be directly absorbed into the blood system.
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- Peng, Weiguo; Maria L. Cotrinaa; Xiaoning Hana; Hongmei Yua; Lane Bekara; Livnat Bluma; Takahiro Takanoa; Guo-Feng Tiana; Steven A. Goldmanb; Maiken Nedergaard (July 28, 2009). "Systemic administration of an antagonist of the ATP-sensitive receptor P2X7 improves recovery after spinal cord injury". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 106 (30): 12489–12493. doi:10.1073/pnas.0902531106. PMC 2718350. PMID 19666625. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
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