Brown FK

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Brown FK

Chemicals structures of the dye components of Brown FK
Other names
  • Kipper Brown
  • Chocolate Brown FK
  • C.I. Food Brown 1
ECHA InfoCard 100.122.899 Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number
  • 617-128-3
E number E154 (colours)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

Brown FK, also called Kipper Brown, Chocolate Brown FK, and C.I. Food Brown 1, is a brown mixture of six synthetic azo dyes, with addition of sodium chloride, and/or sodium sulfate. It is very soluble in water.[citation needed] When used as a food dye, its E number is E154.

It was once used in smoked and cured mackerels and other fish and also in some cooked hams and other meats. It gave a "healthy" color that did not fade during cooking, nor leach.[citation needed]

It is currently not approved for use in the European Union (but was allowed to color kippers to produce orange kippers), in Australia,[1] Austria, Canada, United States, Japan, Switzerland, New Zealand, Norway,[2] and Russia.[3]

In 2011, a review by the European Food Safety Authority concluded that Brown FK was no longer used and the Authority could not conclude on the safety of the substance due to the deficiencies in the available toxicity data. Therefore, it should not be included in the Union list of approved food additives.[4]


The dyes it contains are:

  • 4-(2,4-diaminophenylazo)benzenesulfonate, sodium salt
  • 4-(4,6-diamino-m-tolylazo)benzenesulfonate, sodium salt
  • 4,4'-(4,6-diamino-1,3-phenylenebisazo)-di(benzenesulfonate), disodium salt
  • 4,4'-(2,4-diamino-1,3-phenylenebisazo)-di(benzenesulfonate), disodium salt
  • 4,4'-(2,4-diamino-5-methyl-1,3-phenylenebisazo)-di(benzenesulfonate), disodium salt
  • 4,4',4''-(2,4-diaminobenzene-1,3,5-trisazo)-tri(benzenesulfonate), trisodium salt


  1. ^ "Standard 1.2.4 - Labelling of ingredients". Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code. Retrieved 2011-10-27.
  2. ^ "E154 Brown FK". Archived from the original on 2021-03-23. Retrieved 2006-05-27.
  3. ^ "Гигиенические требования по применению . пищевых добавок : Витаминно-минеральный комплекс Алфавит". Archived from the original on 2010-12-03. Retrieved 2010-09-11.
  4. ^ Commission Regulation (EU) No 1129/2011 of 11 November 2011 amending Annex II to Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council by establishing a Union list of food additives