Paprika oleoresin

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Paprika oleoresin

Major chemical components of paprika oleoresin
Names
IUPAC names
(3R,3′S,5′R)-3,3′-dihydroxy-β,κ-caroten-6′-one (capsanthin)
(3S,5R,3′S,5′R)-3,3′-dihydroxy-κ,κ-carotene-6,6′-dione (capsorubin)
Other names
Paprika extract; Paprika color
Identifiers
ChEBI
ChemSpider
  • none
E number E160c (colours)
Properties
C40H56O3 (capsanthin)

C40H56O4 (capsorubin)

Molar mass 584.87 g/mol (capsanthin)

600.85 g/mol (capsorubin)

Appearance Reddish viscous liquid
Insoluble
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Paprika oleoresin (also known as paprika extract and oleoresin paprika) is an oil-soluble extract from the fruits of Capsicum annuum or Capsicum frutescens, and is primarily used as a colouring and/or flavouring in food products. It is composed of vegetable oil (often in the range of 97% to 98%), capsaicin, the main flavouring compound giving pungency in higher concentrations, and capsanthin and capsorubin, the main colouring compounds (among other carotenoids).[1] It is much milder than capsicum oleoresin, often containing no capsaicin at all.

Extraction is performed by percolation with a variety of solvents, primarily hexane, which are removed prior to use. Vegetable oil is then added to ensure a uniform color saturation.[2]

Uses[edit]

Foods colored with paprika oleoresin include cheese, orange juice, spice mixtures, sauces, sweets, ketchup, soups, fish fingers, chips, pastries, fries, dressings, seasonings, jellies, bacon, ham, ribs, and among other foods even cod fillets.[3] In poultry feed, it is used to deepen the colour of egg yolks.

In the United States, paprika oleoresin is listed as a color additive “exempt from certification”.[4] In Europe, paprika oleoresin (extract), and the compounds capsanthin and capsorubin are designated by E160c.

Names and CAS nos[edit]

Trivial Name Preferred[citation needed] Name AutoNom Name Cas No.
Capsaicin 8-Methyl-N-vanillyl-trans-6-nonenamide (E)-8-Methyl-non-6-enoic acid 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzylamide 404-86-4
Capsanthin (all-E,3R,3'S,5'R)-3,3'-dihydroxy-β,κ-caroten-6'-one (2E,4E,6E,8E,10E,12E,14E,16E,18E)-19-((R)-4-Hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethyl-cyclohex-1-enyl)-1-((1R,4S)-4-hydroxy-1,2,2-trimethylcyclopentyl)-4,8,13,17-tetramethyl-nonadeca-2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18-nonaen-1-one 465-42-9
Capsorubin (all-E,3S,3'S,5R,5'R)-3,3'-dihydroxy-κ,κ-carotene-6,6'-dione (2E,4E,6E,8E,10E,12E,14E,16E,18E)-1,20-Bis-((1R,4S)-4-hydroxy-1,2,2-trimethyl-cyclopentyl)-4,8,13,17-tetramethyl-icosa-2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18-nonaene-1,20-dione 470-38-2

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pérez-Gálvez A, Martin HD, Sies H, Stahl W (2003). "Incorporation of carotenoids from paprika oleoresin into human chylomicrons". Br. J. Nutr. 89 (6): 787–93. doi:10.1079/BJN2003842. PMID 12828795.
  2. ^ Jarén-Galán M, Nienaber U, Schwartz SJ (1999). "Paprika (Capsicum annuum) Oleoresin Extraction with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide". J. Agric. Food Chem. 47 (9): 3558–64. doi:10.1021/jf9900985. PMID 10552685.
  3. ^ "Paprika Extract (E160c) – Overview, Uses, Side Effects & More". HealthKnight. Retrieved 2022-04-13.
  4. ^ "Title 21 Code of Federal Regulations, part 73". Archived from the original on 2009-05-09. Retrieved 2008-08-12.