Iron(II) gluconate

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Iron(II) gluconate
Ferrous gluconate.png
Systematic IUPAC name
Iron; (2R,3R,4S,5S)-2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanoic acid
299-29-6 N
ATC code B03AA03
ChemSpider 19953133 YesY
Jmol-3D images Image
PubChem 9291
Molar mass 446.14 g·mol−1
Appearance Light yellow to brown powder
Odor Slight caramel odor
Melting point 188 °C (370 °F; 461 K) dihydrate
Solubility soluble in glycerin
negligible in alcohol
Safety data sheet Oxford MSDS
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
 N verify (what isYesY/N?)
Infobox references

Iron(II) gluconate, or ferrous gluconate,[1] is a black compound often used as an iron supplement. It is the iron(II) salt of gluconic acid. It is marketed under brand names such as Fergon, Ferralet, and Simron.[2]


Ferrous gluconate is effectively used in the treatment of hypochromic anemia. The use of this compound compared with other iron preparations results in satisfactory reticulocyte responses, a high percentage utilization of iron, and daily increase in hemoglobin that a normal level occurs in a reasonably short time.[3]

Ferrous gluconate is also used as a food additive when processing black olives. It is represented by the food labeling E number E579 in Europe. It imparts a uniform jet black color to the olives.[4]


Ferrous gluconate may be toxic in case of overdose. Children may show signs of toxicity with ingestions of 10–20 mg/kg of elemental iron. Serious toxicity may result from ingestions of more than 60 mg/kg. Iron exerts both local and systemic effects: it is corrosive to the GI mucosa, it can have a negative impact on the heart and blood (dehydration, low blood pressure, fast and weak pulse, shock), lungs, liver, gastrointestinal system (diarrhea, nausea, vomiting blood), nervous system (chills, dizziness, coma, convulsions, headache), and skin (flushing, loss of color, bluish-colored lips and fingernails).[5][6] The symptoms may disappear in a few hours, but then emerge again after 1 or more days.

Compendial status[edit]


  1. ^ ferrous gluconate information page
  2. ^ ferrous gluconate summary
  3. ^ Reznikoff, Paul; Goebel, Walther F. (1937). "The Use of Ferrous Gluconate in the Treatment of Hypochromic Anemia". Journal of Clinical Investigation 16 (4): 547–54. doi:10.1172/JCI100881. PMC 424894. PMID 16694502. 
  4. ^ CSPI's Guide to Food Additives
  5. ^ Toxicity, Iron
  6. ^ Iron overdose
  7. ^ The British Pharmacopoeia Secretariat (2009). "Index, BP 2009" (PDF). Retrieved 5 July 2009. 

See also[edit]