European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System
European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) is a standard for comparing the study attainment and performance of students of higher education across the European Union and other collaborating European countries. For successfully completed studies, ECTS credits are awarded. One academic year corresponds to 60 ECTS credits that are equivalent to 1500–1800 hours of study in all countries respective of standard or qualification type and is used to facilitate transfer and progression throughout the Union.
The ECTS will be complemented by the European Credit Transfer System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET), which the ministers responsible for vocational training in 32 European countries agreed to develop in the Maastricht Communiqué of 14 December 2004.
|Country||Credit Points per year||Hours per Credit Point||Credit point name
|European Union (EU)||60||25-30||ECTS-credits|
|EU Member States|
|Austria||60||25||ECTS (also ECTS-Punkte, ECTS credits)|
|Belgium||60||25-30||ECTS (also studiepunten, ECTS)|
|England, Wales and Northern Ireland||120||~15||credits (Open University – points). Two England/Wales/Northern Ireland credits are equivalent to one ECTS credit.|
|Estonia||60||26||ainepunkt (EAP). Currently because many students are still used to the older system the longer name 'euroopa ainepunkt' is more often used for clarity's sake|
|Finland||60||27||opintopiste (op) / studiepoäng (Swedish)|
|Germany||60||25-30||ECTS, Leistungspunkte (LP), Kreditpunkte (KP), Credit Points (CP) or Credits|
|Greece||60||30||ECTS, Credit Points (CP), Μονάδες Φόρτου Εργασίας (Διδακτικές Μονάδες - Δ.Μ) or Credits|
|Italy||60||25||crediti formativi universitari (CFU)|
|Latvia||60||30||ECTS kredītpunkts (equals 1.5 "Latvian" credit points - kredītpunkts (KP))|
|Lithuania||60||~28||kreditai; ECTS kreditai|
|The Netherlands||60||28||studiepunten (ECTS or EC)|
|Poland||60||25-30||punkty ECTS, eceteesy|
|Scotland||120||10||SCQF credit points (2 SCQF points equal 1 ECTS point)|
|Sweden||60||26.667||högskolepoäng (Used from July 2007)|
|EFTA Member States|
|Other European Countries|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||60||25||ECTS bodovi|
(*) Note: some Bulgarian universities have put a lesser standard for their students, although there is a particular ordinance by the Ministry of Education and Science. In such universities the hours per credit are ≈13 Moreover, an "academic hour" in a Bulgarian educational institution is 40 or 45 minutes long.
- Educational policies and initiatives of the European Union
- Bologna Process
- European Higher Education Area
- ECTS grading scale
- Carnegie Unit and Student Hour
- Erasmus Programme
- Academic mobility
- European Commission ECTS information
- The Official Bologna Process Website 2010-2020
- European Commission ECVET information
- ECTS/DS - Users' Guide and forms
- Systemy Akumulacji i Transferu Osiągnięć Na Przykładzie ECTS I ECVET
- EUROPA - Education and Training - Socrates programme - ECTS - European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System
- "Erasmus Mundus credits" (PDF). University of Salford. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
- "Credit point system". Retrieved 27 November 2015.
- "Law of Higher education (in Latvian)". 1 January 1995. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
- "SCQF Credit Points". Retrieved 15 January 2015.
- (PDF) http://scqf.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/European-Developments-Explained-FINAL-web-version-April-2012.pdf. Retrieved 8 January 2016. Missing or empty
- "Ordinance 21/30 September 2004 for Application of Credit Transfer and Accumulation System in Higher education institutions, Ministry of education and science, Bulgaria, page 2". Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- "Academic calendar, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Sofia University". Retrieved 15 December 2012. (3105 hours = 240 credits)
- "Sofia University - Business Administration (English) - Curriculum". Retrieved 15 December 2012.
- Higher Education Act - Bulgaria, page 12, Promulgated by State Gazette No. 112, December 1995.