|Computer memory types|
|Early stage NVRAM|
This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Embedded DRAM (eDRAM) is dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) integrated on the same die or multi-chip module (MCM) of an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) or microprocessor. eDRAM's cost-per-bit is higher when compared to equivalent standalone DRAM chips used as external memory, but the performance advantages of placing eDRAM onto the same chip as the processor outweigh the cost disadvantages in many applications. In performance and size, eDRAM is positioned between level 3 cache and conventional DRAM on the memory bus, and effectively functions as a level 4 cache, though architectural descriptions may not explicitly refer to it in those terms.
Embedding memory on the ASIC or processor allows for much wider buses and higher operation speeds, and due to much higher density of DRAM in comparison to SRAM, larger amounts of memory can be installed on smaller chips if eDRAM is used instead of eSRAM. eDRAM requires additional fab process steps compared with embedded SRAM, which raises cost, but the 3× area savings of eDRAM memory offsets the process cost when a significant amount of memory is used in the design.
eDRAM memories, like all DRAM memories, require periodic refreshing of the memory cells, which adds complexity. However, if the memory refresh controller is embedded along with the eDRAM memory, the remainder of the ASIC can treat the memory like a simple SRAM type such as in 1T-SRAM. It is also possible to use architectural techniques to mitigate the refresh overhead in eDRAM caches.
eDRAM is used in various products, including IBM's POWER7 processor, and IBM's z15 mainframe processor (mainframes built which use up to 4.69 GB of eDRAM when 5 such add-on chips/drawers are used but all other levels from L1 up also use eDRAM, for a total of 6.4 GB of eDRAM). Intel's Haswell CPUs with GT3e integrated graphics, many game consoles and other devices, such as Sony's PlayStation 2, Sony's PlayStation Portable, Nintendo's GameCube, Nintendo's Wii, Nintendo's Wii U, Apple Inc.'s iPhone, Microsoft's Zune HD, and Microsoft's Xbox 360 also use eDRAM.
|Product name||Amount of|
|IBM's System Controller (SC) SCM, with L4 cache for the z15||MB960|
|Intel Haswell, Iris Pro Graphics 5200 (GT3e)||MB128|
|Intel Broadwell, Iris Pro Graphics 6200 (GT3e)||128 MB|
|Intel Skylake, Iris Graphics 540 and 550 (GT3e)||64 MB|
|Intel Skylake, Iris Pro Graphics 580 (GT4e)||64 or 128 MB|
|Intel Coffee Lake, Iris Plus Graphics 655 (GT3e)||128 MB|
|Intel Knights Landing (2nd-generation Xeon Phi)||16384 MB|
|PlayStation 2||4 MB|
|Xbox 360||10 MB|
|Wii U||32 MB|
Certain software utilities can model eDRAM caches.
- Intel's Embedded DRAM: New Era of Cache Memory
- "A Survey Of Architectural Approaches for Managing Embedded DRAM and Non-volatile On-chip Caches", Mittal et al., IEEE TPDS, 2014
- "Hot Chips XXI Preview". Real World Technologies. Retrieved 2009-08-17.
- "Haswell GT3e Pictured, Coming to Desktops (R-SKU) & Notebooks". AnandTech. Retrieved 2013-10-07.
- Alcorn, Paul (June 20, 2016). "Intel Xeon Phi Knights Landing Now Shipping; Omni Path Update, Too". Tom's Hardware. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
KNL features 16 GB of on-package MCDRAM (Multi-Channel DRAM) Micron HBM
- 3d_cache_modeling_tool / destiny, code.ornl.gov, Retrieved 2015-02-26.
- Day dawns for eDRAM