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Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 delta (guanine nucleotide exchange protein)
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols EEF1D ; EF-1D; EF1D; FP1047
External IDs OMIM130592 MGI1913906 HomoloGene23404 GeneCards: EEF1D Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE EEF1D 203113 s at tn.png
PBB GE EEF1D 214394 x at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 1936 66656
Ensembl ENSG00000104529 ENSMUSG00000055762
UniProt P29692 P57776
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001130053 NM_001285429
RefSeq (protein) NP_001123525 NP_001272358
Location (UCSC) Chr 8:
143.58 – 143.6 Mb
Chr 15:
75.89 – 75.91 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Elongation factor 1-delta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EEF1D gene.[1]

This gene encodes a subunit of the elongation factor-1 complex, which is responsible for the enzymatic delivery of aminoacyl tRNAs to the ribosome. This subunit functions as guanine nucleotide exchange factor. It is reported that this subunit interacts with HIV-1 Tat, and thus it represses the translation of host-cell, but not HIV-1, mRNAs. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene, however, the full length nature of only two variants has been determined.[2]


EEF1D has been shown to interact with Glycyl-tRNA synthetase,[3] EEF1G[4][5] and KTN1,[6] and is predicted to interact with TMEM63A.[7]


  1. ^ Sanders J, Raggiaschi R, Morales J, Moller W (August 1993). "The human leucine zipper-containing guanine-nucleotide exchange protein elongation factor-1 delta". Biochim Biophys Acta 1174 (1): 87–90. doi:10.1016/0167-4781(93)90097-W. PMID 8334168. 
  2. ^ "Entrez Gene: EEF1D eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 delta (guanine nucleotide exchange protein)". 
  3. ^ Sang Lee, Jong; Gyu Park Sang; Park Heonyong; Seol Wongi; Lee Sangwon; Kim Sunghoon (February 2002). "Interaction network of human aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and subunits of elongation factor 1 complex". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (United States) 291 (1): 158–64. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2002.6398. ISSN 0006-291X. PMID 11829477. 
  4. ^ Rual, Jean-François; Venkatesan Kavitha, Hao Tong, Hirozane-Kishikawa Tomoko, Dricot Amélie, Li Ning, Berriz Gabriel F, Gibbons Francis D, Dreze Matija, Ayivi-Guedehoussou Nono, Klitgord Niels, Simon Christophe, Boxem Mike, Milstein Stuart, Rosenberg Jennifer, Goldberg Debra S, Zhang Lan V, Wong Sharyl L, Franklin Giovanni, Li Siming, Albala Joanna S, Lim Janghoo, Fraughton Carlene, Llamosas Estelle, Cevik Sebiha, Bex Camille, Lamesch Philippe, Sikorski Robert S, Vandenhaute Jean, Zoghbi Huda Y, Smolyar Alex, Bosak Stephanie, Sequerra Reynaldo, Doucette-Stamm Lynn, Cusick Michael E, Hill David E, Roth Frederick P, Vidal Marc (October 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature (England) 437 (7062): 1173–8. doi:10.1038/nature04209. PMID 16189514. 
  5. ^ Stelzl, Ulrich; Worm Uwe, Lalowski Maciej, Haenig Christian, Brembeck Felix H, Goehler Heike, Stroedicke Martin, Zenkner Martina, Schoenherr Anke, Koeppen Susanne, Timm Jan, Mintzlaff Sascha, Abraham Claudia, Bock Nicole, Kietzmann Silvia, Goedde Astrid, Toksöz Engin, Droege Anja, Krobitsch Sylvia, Korn Bernhard, Birchmeier Walter, Lehrach Hans, Wanker Erich E (September 2005). "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell (United States) 122 (6): 957–68. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.029. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 16169070. 
  6. ^ Ong, Lee-Lee; Er Connie P N; Ho Andrea; Aung May T; Yu Hanry (August 2003). "Kinectin anchors the translation elongation factor-1 delta to the endoplasmic reticulum". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 278 (34): 32115–23. doi:10.1074/jbc.M210917200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 12773547. 
  7. ^ "String Database". Retrieved 16 May 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Venema RC, Peters HI, Traugh JA (1991). "Phosphorylation of elongation factor 1 (EF-1) and valyl-tRNA synthetase by protein kinase C and stimulation of EF-1 activity.". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (19): 12574–80. PMID 2061327. 
  • van Damme HT, Amons R, Karssies R; et al. (1990). "Elongation factor 1 beta of artemia: localization of functional sites and homology to elongation factor 1 delta.". Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1050 (1–3): 241–7. doi:10.1016/0167-4781(90)90174-z. PMID 2207149. 
  • Bec G, Kerjan P, Zha XD, Waller JP (1990). "Valyl-tRNA synthetase from rabbit liver. I. Purification as a heterotypic complex in association with elongation factor 1". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (35): 21131–7. PMID 2556394. 
  • Motorin YuA , Wolfson AD, Orlovsky AF, Gladilin KL (1988). "Mammalian valyl-tRNA synthetase forms a complex with the first elongation factor". FEBS Lett. 238 (2): 262–4. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(88)80492-7. PMID 3169261. 
  • Mulner-Lorillon O, Minella O, Cormier P; et al. (1994). "Elongation factor EF-1 delta, a new target for maturation-promoting factor in Xenopus oocytes". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (31): 20201–7. PMID 8051108. 
  • Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides". Gene 138 (1–2): 171–4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID 8125298. 
  • Bec G, Kerjan P, Waller JP (1994). "Reconstitution in vitro of the valyl-tRNA synthetase-elongation factor (EF) 1 beta gamma delta complex. Essential roles of the NH2-terminal extension of valyl-tRNA synthetase and of the EF-1 delta subunit in complex formation". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (3): 2086–92. PMID 8294461. 
  • Sanders J, Brandsma M, Janssen GM; et al. (1996). "Immunofluorescence studies of human fibroblasts demonstrate the presence of the complex of elongation factor-1 beta gamma delta in the endoplasmic reticulum". J. Cell. Sci. 109 (5): 1113–7. PMID 8743958. 
  • Chang YW, Traugh JA (1997). "Phosphorylation of elongation factor 1 and ribosomal protein S6 by multipotential S6 kinase and insulin stimulation of translational elongation". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (45): 28252–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.45.28252. PMID 9353277. 
  • Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K; et al. (1997). "Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library". Gene 200 (1–2): 149–56. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149. 
  • Sheu GT, Traugh JA (1998). "Recombinant subunits of mammalian elongation factor 1 expressed in Escherichia coli. Subunit interactions, elongation activity, and phosphorylation by protein kinase CKII". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (52): 33290–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.52.33290. PMID 9407120. 
  • Xiao H, Neuveut C, Benkirane M, Jeang KT (1998). "Interaction of the second coding exon of Tat with human EF-1 delta delineates a mechanism for HIV-1-mediated shut-off of host mRNA translation". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 244 (2): 384–9. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1998.8274. PMID 9514931. 
  • Kolettas E, Lymboura M, Khazaie K, Luqmani Y (1998). "Modulation of elongation factor-1 delta (EF-1 delta) expression by oncogenes in human epithelial cells". Anticancer Res. 18 (1A): 385–92. PMID 9568107. 
  • Scanlan MJ, Chen YT, Williamson B; et al. (1998). "Characterization of human colon cancer antigens recognized by autologous antibodies". Int. J. Cancer 76 (5): 652–8. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19980529)76:5<652::AID-IJC7>3.0.CO;2-P. PMID 9610721. 
  • Chacko G, Ling Q, Hajjar KA (1998). "Induction of acute translational response genes by homocysteine. Elongation factors-1alpha, -beta, and -delta". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (31): 19840–6. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.31.19840. PMID 9677419. 
  • Sheu GT, Traugh JA (1999). "A structural model for elongation factor 1 (EF-1) and phosphorylation by protein kinase CKII". Mol. Cell. Biochem. 191 (1–2): 181–6. doi:10.1023/A:1006802125856. PMID 10094407. 
  • Furusawa T, Moribe H, Kondoh H, Higashi Y (2000). "Identification of CtBP1 and CtBP2 as Corepressors of Zinc Finger-Homeodomain Factor δEF1". Mol. Cell. Biol. 19 (12): 8581–90. PMC 84984. PMID 10567582. 
  • Sang Lee J, Gyu Park S, Park H; et al. (2002). "Interaction network of human aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and subunits of elongation factor 1 complex". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 291 (1): 158–64. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2002.6398. PMID 11829477. 
  • Lei YX, Chen JK, Wu ZL (2002). "Blocking the translation elongation factor-1 delta with its antisense mRNA results in a significant reversal of its oncogenic potential". Teratog., Carcinog. Mutagen. 22 (5): 377–83. doi:10.1002/tcm.10034. PMID 12210501.