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Aliases EIF2AK1, HCR, HRI, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 1
External IDs MGI: 1353448 HomoloGene: 8290 GeneCards: EIF2AK1
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE EIF2AK1 217736 s at fs.png

PBB GE EIF2AK1 217735 s at fs.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC) Chr 7: 6.02 – 6.06 Mb Chr 5: 143.82 – 143.9 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
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Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the EIF2AK1 gene.[3][4][5]

FUNCTION: It inhibits protein synthesis at the translation initiation level, in response to various stress conditions, including oxidative stress, heme deficiency, osmotic shock and heat shock. Exerts its function through the phosphorylation of EIF2S1 at 'Ser-48' and 'Ser-51', thus preventing its recycling. Binds hemin forming a 1:1 complex through a cysteine thiolate and histidine nitrogenous coordination. This binding occurs with moderate affinity, allowing it to sense the heme concentration within the cell. Thanks to this unique heme-sensing capacity, plays a crucial role to shut off protein synthesis during acute heme-deficient conditions. In red blood cells (RBCs), controls hemoglobin synthesis ensuring a coordinated regulation of the synthesis of its heme and globin moieties. Thus plays an essential protective role for RBC survival in anemias of iron deficiency. Similarly, in hepatocytes, involved in heme-mediated translational control of CYP2B and CYP3A and possibly other hepatic P450 cytochromes. May also contain ER stress during acute heme-deficient conditions.

Catalytic activity: ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein

Enzyme regulation: Induced by acute heme depletion, that not only increases EIF2AK1 protein levels, but also stimulates kinase activity by autophosphorylation. Inhibited by the heme-degradation products biliverdin and bilirubin. Induced by oxidative stress generated by arsenite treatment. Binding of nitric oxide (NO) to the heme iron in the N-terminal heme-binding domain activates the kinase activity, while binding of carbon monoxide (CO) suppresses kinase activity.

cite:http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q9BQI3 The HRI gene is localized to 7p22 where its 3' end slightly overlaps the 3' end of the gene JTV1. The two genes are transcribed from opposite strands. Studies in rat and rabbit suggest that the HRI gene product phosphorylates the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2. Its kinase activity is induced by low levels of heme and inhibited by the presence of heme.[5]


  1. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  2. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ Chen JJ, London IM (May 1995). "Regulation of protein synthesis by heme-regulated eIF-2 alpha kinase". Trends Biochem Sci. 20 (3): 105–8. doi:10.1016/S0968-0004(00)88975-6. PMID 7709427. 
  4. ^ Nagase T, Kikuno R, Ishikawa KI, Hirosawa M, Ohara O (Apr 2000). "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XVI. The complete sequences of 150 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 7 (1): 65–73. doi:10.1093/dnares/7.1.65. PMID 10718198. 
  5. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: EIF2AK1 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 1". 

Further reading[edit]