|Type and origin|
|Builder||GM Electro-Motive Division (EMD)
General Motors Diesel (GMD)
|AAR wheel arr.||C-C|
|Gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
5 ft 3 in (1,600 mm), Brazil
|Prime mover||EMD 16-710G3A|
|Engine type||V16 diesel|
|Power output||3,800 hp (2.8 MW) at 900 rpm|
|Operator(s)||See original owners|
|Locale||North America, Brazil|
|Disposition||most still in service as of 2010|
The EMD SD60 is a 3,800 horsepower (2,800 kW), 6-axle diesel-electric locomotive built by General Motors Electro-Motive Division. Intended for heavy-duty drag freight or medium-speed freight service. It was introduced in 1984, and production ran until 1995.
History and development
The development of the GP50 and GP60 series (B-B) the SD50 and SD60 series (C-C) locomotives (all of these being 16 cylinders; EMD formerly offered 3,600 hp (2,700 kW) in a 20-cylinder model, the SD45, but it had a reputation for being a fuel guzzler, although the technology was identical to the concurrently available 16-cylinder models) in the late 1970s and early 1980s was spurred by the introduction of 3,600 horsepower (2,700 kW) GE B36-7 (B-B) and GE C36-7 (C-C) locomotives (both of these being 16 cylinders, as were most of its predecessors, but with major modifications to the "power assemblies" to cope with the higher temperatures and pressures encountered at this power level in a 16-cylinder engine) by EMD's main competitor General Electric. In 1980, the SD50 model was added to the EMD Catalog. However, the SD50's electrical reliability was poor and, similarly, the 3,500 horsepower (2,600 kW) 16-645F engine had poor mechanical reliability, both believed to be largely due to excessive vibration from the 950 maximum rpm of the 645F prime mover. It was time to develop a replacement for the venerable 645 engine which, in its earlier 16-645E form, had proved to be exceptionally reliable. EMD therefore quickly commenced development of the SD60 series, which would eliminate the weaknesses of the SD50. The lessons learned in developing the 645F crankcase and crankshaft (for the earlier 20-645E, and the then-current 16-645F) were incorporated in the replacement, the 710G, first employed in the SD60. Although the carbody and frame are nearly indistinguishable from the earlier SD50, the SD60 featured the new 16-cylinder EMD 710G3A prime mover, AR-11 traction alternator, D-87 traction motors and a microprocessor-based control system that governed various electrical systems within the locomotive (e.g., wheel slip and transition).
The SD60 proved to be more reliable and fuel-efficient than the SD50, but it was not a resounding success in terms of regaining the market share that was lost due to the electrical and mechanical issues that plagued the earlier SD50. The goal was to equal or exceed the reliability of the earlier 645E-powered 3,000 horsepower (2,200 kW) SD40-2, which was an industry standard benchmark for reliability, in the new 710G-powered 3,800 horsepower (2,800 kW) SD60. This goal was largely achieved and the later 710G-powered 4,000 horsepower (3,000 kW) SD70M received what would be the largest single order for new locomotives, a 1,000 unit order from Union Pacific, (numbered UP 4000 through 4999, inclusive), which was later extended by nearly 500 additional SD70M units (numbered UP 3999 and below, and UP 5000 and above), and by nearly 1,000 additional units if UP's SD70ACe orders are included.
As an indication of its sound design, many SD60s are now being re-manufactured by their owners or by subcontractors for another 30 years of trouble-free service, 240 such units by Norfolk Southern alone, some of which will be acquired on the secondary market from locomotive lessors. These NS conversions are reported to be upgraded to include electronic fuel injection, intercooling, "crash-worthy" fuel tanks and other components and features found in late SD70s. The traditional "spartan" cab will also be replaced with a new "crash-worthy" cab built to NS specifications ("Crescent cab"). Early units were completed at the original SD60's 3,800 HP rating, but all were later uprated to the SD70's 4,000 HP rating, thereby becoming for all intents and purposes the equivalent of a late SD70M, but at a fraction of an SD70M's cost.
Several variants of the SD60 were built, including:
The SD60I model has a full-width short hood and features the so-called "WhisperCab" that was isolated from sound and vibration using a system of rubber gaskets. The same cab was later used on EMD's SD70I, SD75I, SD80MAC and SD90MAC locomotives. Only Conrail ordered this model, and all now belong to the Norfolk Southern Railway and CSX Transportation.
The SD60M features a "North American safety cab" design and has a full-width short hood. Early models featured a three-piece windshield with vertical windows (nicknamed "triclops"), identical to the windshields found on EMD's SD40-2F and F59PH models. Later production used two windshield panes that were sloped back, and had a somewhat shorter nose. EMD's F59PH is based on the SD60M. Purchasers of this model included Conrail, Union Pacific Railroad, Burlington Northern Railroad and the Soo Line Railroad.
The SD60MAC is similar to the SD60M but is equipped with alternating current traction motors. Although four demonstrator SD60MAC units tested on the Burlington Northern Railroad proved the viability of EMD's AC traction system, all subsequent orders were for the SD70MAC locomotive.
The SD60E is a custom rebuilt SD60 for Norfolk Southern created at the Juniata Shops. So far, only standard SD60s have entered this rebuild program, which began in 2010. It is unknown at this time[when?] if SD60Is and SD60Ms will get this rebuild. The SD60E utilizes a new NS-designed "Crescent" cab with a wide short hood. The name Crescent comes from the Norfolk Southern Crescent Corridor which runs from Louisiana to New Jersey. The upgrade also installs new electronics and upgrades the engine to the 710G3B standard rated at 4000hp. Norfolk Southern bought additional SD60s from HLCX (Helm Financial Corporation) specifically for the SD60E program with the aim to eventually rebuild 240 SD60Es.
Notable SD60Es include the NS 6920 "Veterans Unit," the NS 6963 "GoRail Unit," and the NS 9-1-1 "Honoring Our First Responders Unit."
|EMD SD60 orders|
|Burlington Northern||3||8300-8302||Demonstrators owned by EMD but painted for BN; Now with CSX|
|Chicago & North Western||55||8001-8055||Built to SOO Line specifications; SOO was unable to take delivery due to financial conditions & the order was passed to C&NW|
|Conrail||25||6843-6867||After the 1999 Conrail split; 12 units went to CSX and were renumbered CSXT 8710-8721, 8790; 15 units went to NS and were renumbered NS 6702-6716|
|EMDX||4||1-4||Demonstrators; EMD 1,2,4 to CR 6840-6842; EMD 3 leased to BNSF as replacement for EMD 9041 (used at DOT, Pueblo, CO) EMD 3/9041 is now part of the Illinois Railway locomotive roster.|
|Kansas City Southern||46||714-759|
|Norfolk Southern||151||6550-6700||Slowly rebuilding their SD60s to SD60Es at Juniata Shops|
|Oakway||100||9000-9099||90 now owned by Canadian National. The NYSQ bought 6 in the summer of 2012. 4 are still owned by BNSF Railway|
|Soo Line||58||6000-6057||SOO 6000-6020 returned to leaser, Capital Finance (CIT Group) Former SOO 6021-6057/CP 6221-6257 have now been put up for sale.|
|Union Pacific||85||6000-6084||Renumbered UP 2155-2239 (except UP 6014, wrecked & scrapped)|
|EMD SD60F orders|
|Canadian National||64||5500-5563||5500-5503 are pre-production SD60F's, originally classified as SD50AF & built as CN 9900-9903. They look like SD50F's, but internally are SD60F's.|
|EMD SD60I orders|
|Conrail||80||5575-5654||After the 1999 Conrail split; 35 units went to CSX and were renumbered CSXT 8722-8755, 8774; 46 units went to NS and were renumbered NS 6717-6762|
|EMD SD60M orders|
|Burlington Northern||100||1991, 9200-9298||Renumbered BNSF 9200-9299, then renumbered BNSF 8100-8199 in 2007-2008. 14 sold to PRLX & 9 sold to NS. Remaining renumbered to 1401-1476.|
|Conrail||75||5500-5574||After the 1999 Conrail split; 30 units went to CSX and were renumbered CSXT 8756-8773, 8775 - 8786; 44 units went to NS and were renumbered NS 6763-6806|
|Soo Line||5||6058-6062||Former SOO 6058-6062/CP 6258-6262 have now been put up for sale.|
|Union Pacific||281||6085-6365||Renumbered to 2240-2520 except 6106 & 6165. 24 rebuilt into EMD SD32ECOs. UP classifies these as SD59MXs. Renumbered 9900-9923. All 24 have been delivered.|
|Carajás Railroad (Vale)||2||601-602||Manufactured by Equipment Villares S. A. (EVSA) in 1991. Last locomotives manufactured by EVSA before the merger with GE Transportation in Brazil, leading to GEVISA.|
- Diesel Era (unknown year). EMD's SD60 Series – Steppingstone to the 21st Century. Diesel Era. ISBN 1-881411-08-7. Check date values in:
- Union Pacific Railroad Locomotive Department (1994). Locomotive Diagram Book. Union Pacific Railroad Company.
- The Diesel Shop Locomotive Rosters
- Memória do Trem Locomotive Rosters Carajás Railroad
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to EMD SD60 locomotives.|