EQUULEUS

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EQUULEUS
NamesEQUilibriUm Lunar-Earth point 6U Spacecraft
Mission typeTechnology, science
Mission durationCruise: 6 months (planned) [1]
Science: 6 months (planned)
Elasped: 2 months and 19 days
Spacecraft properties
SpacecraftEQUULEUS
Spacecraft typeCubeSat
Bus6U CubeSat
ManufacturerJAXA / University of Tokyo
Launch mass14 kg (31 lb)
Dimensions10 cm × 20 cm × 30 cm (3.9 in × 7.9 in × 11.8 in)
Power15 watts
Start of mission
Launch date16 November 2022, 06:47:44 UTC[2]
RocketSLS Block 1
Launch siteKennedy, LC-39B
ContractorNASA
Orbital parameters
Reference systemSelenocentric orbit
Transponders
BandX-band and Ka-band[1]
TWTA power13 W [1]
Flyby of Moon
Closest approach21 November 2022, 16:25 UTC
Distance5,000 km (3,100 mi)
Instruments
Plasmaspheric Helium ion Observation by Enhanced New Imager in eXtreme ultraviolet (PHOENIX)
DEtection camera for Lunar impact PHenomena IN 6U Spacecraft (DELPHIUS))
Cis-Lunar Object Detector within Thermal Insulation (CLOTH)
 

EQUULEUS (EQUilibriUm Lunar-Earth point 6U Spacecraft) is a nanosatellite of the 6U CubeSat format that will measure the distribution of plasma that surrounds the Earth (plasmasphere) to help scientists understand the radiation environment in that region. It will also demonstrate low-thrust trajectory control techniques, such as multiple lunar flybys, within the Earth-Moon region using water steam as propellant.[3][1] The spacecraft was designed and developed jointly by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the University of Tokyo.[3][4]

EQUULEUS was one of ten CubeSats launched with the Artemis 1 mission into a heliocentric orbit in cislunar space on the maiden flight of the Space Launch System that took place on 16 November 2022.[2][5] On 17 November 2022, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) reported that EQUULEUS separated successfully on 16 November 2022 and was confirmed to be operating normally on 16 November 2022 at 13:50 UTC.[6]

Overview[edit]

Mapping the plasmasphere around Earth may provide important insight for protecting both humans and electronics from radiation damage during long space journeys. It will also demonstrate low-thrust trajectory control techniques, such as multiple lunar flybys, within the Earth-Moon Lagrange points (EML).[1][7][8] The mission will demonstrate that departing from EML can transfer to various orbits, such as Earth orbits, Moon orbits, and interplanetary orbits, with a tiny amount of orbital control.[7] EQUULEUS features 2 deployable solar panels, and lithium batteries.

The mission will be monitored from the Japanese deep space antenna (64-meter antenna and 34-meter antenna) with support from the DSN (Deep Space Network) of Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).[1] The principal investigator is Professor Hashimoto at the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA).[7] The mission is named after the 'little horse' constellation Equuleus.[9]

Propulsion[edit]

Water thrusters Unit/performance
Propellant Water
Thrust 2 - 4 mN
Specific impulse >70 seconds
Stored pressure < 100 kPa
Power 12 – 15 watts
Water mass 1.2 kg
Total Delta-V 70 m/s

The propulsion system, called AQUARIUS, employs 8 water thrusters also used for attitude control (orientation) and momentum management.[10] The spacecraft will carry 1.2 kg of water,[10][11] and the complete propulsion system will occupy about 2.5 units out of the 6 units total spacecraft volume. The waste heat from the communication components is reused to assist in the heating of water vapor, which is heated to 100 °C (212 °F) at the pre-heater.[10] The AQUARIUS' water thrusters produce a total of 4.0 mN, a specific impulse (Isp) of 70 seconds, and consumes about 20 watts power.[10] Before its flight on EQUULEUS, AQUARIUS will be first tested on the 2019 AQT-D CubeSat.

Scientific payload[edit]

Several of EQUULEUS's instruments are named after the constellations that neighbor Equuleus.

PHOENIX[edit]

EQUULEUS' scientific payload features a small UV imager named PHOENIX (Plasmaspheric Helium ion Observation by Enhanced New Imager in eXtreme ultraviolet) that will operate in the high-energy extreme ultraviolet wavelengths. It consists of an entrance mirror of 60 mm diameter, and a photon counting device. The reflectivity of the mirror is optimized for the emission line of helium ion (30.4 nm wavelength), which is the relevant component of the plasmasphere of Earth.[12] The plasmasphere is where various phenomena are caused by the electromagnetic disturbances by the solar wind. By flying far from the Earth, the PHOENIX telescope will provide a global image of the plasmasphere of Earth and contribute to its spatial and temporal evolution.[12]

DELPHINUS[edit]

DELPHINUS (DEtection camera for Lunar impact PHenomena IN 6U Spacecraft), or DLP, for short is a camera connected to the PHOENIX telescope to observe lunar impact flashes and near-Earth asteroids (NEO), as well as potential 'mini-moons' while positioned at the Earth-Moon Lagrangian point L2 (L2) halo orbit.[13] Theoretically, NEOs approaching Earth can be briefly caught within gravity of Earth well, and although in terms of orbital mechanics the object's movements is still centered around the Sun, to an observer on Earth it will move as if it is a moon of the planet.[13] One example of such an object is 2006 RH120, which orbited Earth between 2006 and 2007. If a mini-moon or NEO that can be rendezvoused by EQUULEUS is identified, the CubeSat will attempt a flyby.[13] This payload occupies about 0.5 units out of the total 6 units volume.[1] The results will contribute to the risk evaluation for future infrastructure or human activity on the lunar surface.[1]

CLOTH[edit]

The instrument named CLOTH (Cis-Lunar Object Detector within Thermal Insulation) will detect and evaluate the meteoroid impact flux in the cislunar space by using dust detectors mounted on the exterior of the spacecraft. The goal of this instrument is to determine the size and spatial distribution of dust solid objects in the cislunar space.[1] CLOTH utilizes the spacecraft's multi-layer insulation (MLI) as a detector, thus realizing a dust counter suitable for mass-constrained CubeSats.[14] It will be the first instrument to measure the dust environment of the Earth–Moon L2 Lagrange point, and aims to uncover the dust's origin, as well as conducting risk assessment of the L2 point dust particles in anticipation of a future crewed mission.[14] CLOTH will decipher L2 point dust (likely originating from mini-moons) from sporadic dust by differences in their impact velocity.[14]

See also[edit]

The 10 CubeSats flying in the Artemis 1 mission
The 3 CubeSat missions removed from Artemis 1
CubeSat and microsatellite projects of ISSL

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "EQUULEUS: Mission to Earth - Moon Lagrange Point by a 6U Deep Space CubeSat". Utah State University, Small Satellite Conference. 2017. Retrieved 12 March 2021.
  2. ^ a b Roulette, Joey; Gorman, Steve (16 November 2022). "NASA's next-generation Artemis mission heads to moon on debut test flight". Reuters. Retrieved 16 November 2022.
  3. ^ a b "Space Launch System Highlights" (PDF). NASA. May 2016. Retrieved 12 March 2021. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  4. ^ Gunter Dirk Krebs (18 May 2020). "EQUULEUS". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 12 March 2021.
  5. ^ Clark, Stephen (12 October 2021). "Adapter structure with 10 CubeSats installed on top of Artemis moon rocket". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 22 October 2021.
  6. ^ "JAXA | Status of the JAXA CubeSats OMOTENASHI and EQUULEUS onboard NASA Artemis I". JAXA | Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. Retrieved 18 November 2022.
  7. ^ a b c "EQUULEUS - Technology Demonstration". Intelligent Space Systems Laboratory. University of Tokyo. 2017. Retrieved 12 March 2021.
  8. ^ "International Partners Provide Science Satellites for America's Space Launch System Maiden Flight". NASA. 26 May 2016. Retrieved 12 March 2021. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  9. ^ Lester Haines (27 May 2016). "NASA firms up Space Launch System nanosat manifest". The Register. Retrieved 12 March 2021.
  10. ^ a b c d "Development of the Water Resistojet Propulsion System for Deep Space Exploration by the CubeSat: EQUULEUS". Small Satellite Conference. University of Tokyo. 2017. Retrieved 12 March 2021.
  11. ^ Hiroyuki Koizumi (2017). "Development of the Water ResistojetPropulsion System for Deep Space Exploration by the CubeSat EQUULEUS". Small Satellite Conference. University of Tokyo. Retrieved 12 March 2021.
  12. ^ a b "Plasmaspheric Helium ion Observation by Enhanced New Imager in eXtreme ultraviolet". EQUULEUS mission home page Intelligent Space Systems Laboratory. University of Tokyo. 2017. Retrieved 12 March 2021.
  13. ^ a b c "DELPHINUS". Intelligent Space Systems Laboratory. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
  14. ^ a b c Ikari, Satoshi; Fujiwara, Masahiro; Kondo, Hirotaka; Matsushita, Shuhei; Yoshikawa, Ichiro; et al. "Solar System Exploration Sciences by EQUULEUS on SLS EM-1 and Science Instruments Development Status". 33rd Annual AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites: 4. Retrieved 10 December 2022.